Lecture 20 G Protein Receptor Mediated Signaling and the Autonomic Nervous System

Lecture 20 G Protein Receptor Mediated Signaling and the Autonomic Nervous System

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IPHY 3060 Lecture 22: G Protein Receptor Mediated Signaling and the Autonomic Nervous System
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Key points from before Cells in a multicellular organism need to communicate with one another Cells communicate via gap junctions, cell surface receptors, and secreted factors Secreted factor signaling can be either hormonal (long distance) or autocrine/paracrine (local) Secreted factors can be either lipophilic or hydrophilic Hydrophilic factors bind to 3 different types of cell surface receptors: ion channel-linked, catalytic, or G protein G protein linked receptors in turn can either open an ion channel, or activated adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase, or phospholipase C
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The Autonomic Nervous System: Controls and/or modulates both daily and emergency involuntary functions —digestion, sweating, heart rate, breathing
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The Two Parts of the Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic nervous system regulates everyday functions such as digestion, reproduction, sleep, etc. Sympathetic nervous system —regulates “fight or flight” response to stress or danger
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The Two Parts of the Autonomic Nervous System Use Different Neurotransmitters/Hormones Parasympathetic nervous system Acetylcholine Sympathetic nervous system —Epinephrine/ Norepinephrine
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Acetylcholine vs. Epinephrine No effect/increased storage of fats and glycogen Constriction of bronchioles/airways Vasodilation/increased blood flow to non-muscle Decreased heart rate Mobilization of stored fats and glycogen Dilation of bronchioles/airways Vasoconstriction/decreased blood flow to non-muscle Increased heart rate Ach/Parasympathetic Epi/Sympathetic
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Key Point: Both acetylcholine and epinephrine use G protein-linked receptors to carry out their signaling
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G protein linked receptors activate a downstream effector through G proteins Adenylate cyclase activating Ion channel activating Phospholipase C activating
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Example #1: G protein linked receptors that activate adenylate cyclase: Epinephrine and Glycogen Breakdown
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Secreted by adrenal glands and SNS neurons Hormone critical for the fight-or-flight response: mobilization of stored energy stores, increased heart rate, changes in blood flow, etc.
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Main Short-Term Effect of Epinephrine on Liver and Muscle:
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Main Short-Term Effect of Epinephrine on Liver and Muscle: Mobilization of glucose for use by contracting muscle by activating glycogen breakdown and inhibiting glycogen synthesis
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2 Main Enzymes Involved in Glycogen Storage and Degradation Glycogen synthase— synthesis of glycogen + Glycogen synthase Glycogen—long chains of glucose molecules linked together
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2 Main Enzymes Involved in Glycogen Storage and Degradation Glycogen synthase— synthesis of glycogen Glycogen synthase
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2 Main Enzymes Involved in Glycogen Storage and Degradation Glycogen phosphorylase-- breakdown of glycogen Glycogen phosphorylase
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2 Main Enzymes Involved in Glycogen Storage and Degradation Glycogen phosphorylase-- breakdown of glycogen Glycogen phosphorylase
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2 Main Enzymes Involved in Glycogen Storage and Degradation Glycogen phosphorylase-- breakdown of glycogen Glycogen phosphorylase
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Epinephrine and Glycogen Breakdown Step 1: Epinephrine binds to B 1 adrenergic receptor PKA B 1 AR
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This note was uploaded on 08/11/2010 for the course IPHY 3060 taught by Professor Allen,davi during the Fall '09 term at Colorado.

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Lecture 20 G Protein Receptor Mediated Signaling and the Autonomic Nervous System

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