Lecture 21 Catalytic Receptors and the Regulation of Cell Growth and Proliferation

Lecture 21 Catalytic Receptors and the Regulation of Cell Growth and Proliferation

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IPHY 3060 Lecture 21: Catalytic Receptors and the Regulation of Cell Growth and Proliferation
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General Model of Catalytic Receptor Action Ligand binds to receptor
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General Model of Catalytic Receptor Action Ligand binds to receptor Ligand binding induces conformational change in receptor resulting in receptor clustering
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General Model of Catalytic Receptor Action Ligand binds to receptor Ligand binding induces conformational change in receptor resulting in receptor clustering Receptor clustering activates receptor-associated kinase activity which can then phosphorylate downstream proteins
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Two types of catalytic receptor Associated kinase activity —receptor binds to a protein kinase Intrinsic receptor kinase —intracellular domain of receptor has kinase activity Intrinsic receptor kinase Receptor with associated kinase
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Catalytic Receptors with Associated Kinase Activity Growth hormone/cytokine signaling and the JAK/STAT pathway
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Growth Hormone Hydrophilic hormone secreted by pituitary somatotroph cells Signal for secretion: levels of somatostatin and GHRH produced by the hypothalamus in response to androgens, body clock, etc. GH acts on many tissues, best example muscle, bone GH binds to surface receptors, induces increased protein synthesis
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Growth hormone—the first recombinant pharmaceutical 1958—growth hormone isolated from cadavers is injected into a child with defective pituitary function and restores body growth 1979—Scientists at Genentech clone the human growth hormone gene and succeed in producing functional hGH in bacteria 1985—Genentech receives FDA approval to treat children with growth hormone deficiency with injections of rhGH Recombinant human growth hormone
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Designer children--how short is too short? 1997—Genentech receives FDA approval to market rhGH to children with normal GH levels but “short stature”—so- called idiopathic dwarfism - Should companies be allowed to sell drugs or other cures for non-medical and/or purely appearance purposes? - Should parents be allowed to “treat” their children for such a “problem”? - Should we be treating non- medical conditions with expensive and potentially harmful therapies?
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rhGH and Athletic Performance GH increases muscle growth—weight lifters, rowers GH increases muscle speed and power— sprinters, swimmers, cyclists GH increases muscle repair—all athletes?
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