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Lecture 22 Cell Proliferation (The Cell Cycle and Regulation of Mitosis)

Lecture 22 Cell Proliferation (The Cell Cycle and Regulation of Mitosis)

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IPHY 3060 Lecture 22: Cell Proliferation I: The Cell Cycle and Regulation of Mitosis
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Cell Proliferation/Replication: The formation of two identical daughter cells by DNA replication, chromosomal segregation, and cell division
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Cell Proliferation/Replication Is an important component of development, when large numbers of new cells are created to form a new organism Is also necessary for the replenishment of worn out or dying cells in adult animals
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Show Video: Embryogenesis
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Examples of Cell Replication in Adult Tissues 1) normal cell turnover/senescence 2) injury to cells or tissues 3) formation of special structures (uterus)
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The Cell Cycle:
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The Cell Cycle: An ordered sequence of events during which a eukaryotic cell duplicates its chromosomes and divides into two daughter cells
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5 Phases of the Cell Cycle G 0 phase --quiescent non- proliferating phase some cells go into out of G 1 G 1 phase —growth phase following last cell division S phase —DNA synthesis & chromosomal replication G 2 phase --second growth phase in preparation for cell division M phase --actual cell division, divided into phases
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G 0 Phase Period when cell is NOT dividing Cells can re-enter cell cycle from G 0 if stimulated by growth/proliferation factors
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G 1 Phase Period of cell growth Protein synthesis and RNA transcription are up- regulated, organelles are replicated Function is to ensure that two daughter cells are formed that are normal size and have the appropriate amount of proteins and RNAs
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S Phase Period of DNA synthesis Function is to duplicate DNA so that both daughter cells have identical copies of all chromosomes Requires initiation factors, helicase, and DNA polymerase
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G 2 Phase Gap between S phase and M phase Function is to make sure that DNA was properly replicated, growth is completed, and cell is ready to divide
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M phase or Mitosis: Actual process of chromosome separation and cell division (cytokinesis) to form two daughter cells
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The 5 Phases of Mitosis
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Interphase The period at the end of one cell division and before the beginning of another Includes G 0 , G 1 , S, G 2 phases Cell growth (G 1 and G 2 ) Centrioles duplicate Chromosomes replicate (S phase)
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Prophase Centrioles migrate to opposite poles Mitotic spindle forms Nuclear envelope dissolves Chromosomes condense
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Metaphase Chromosomes align along cell equator Spindle microtubules attach to kinetechores
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Anaphase Chromosomes start to separate Poles move apart, pulling cell lengthwise
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