Review_BTECH_21A - Review BTECH 21A 1 Cell or Tissue...

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Review BTECH 21A 1. Cell or Tissue Culture- Maintaining cells outside their original organisms Cells are maintained in a flask with nutrient medium (in vitro) An advantage of in vitro is we can control the cellular environment and conditions. Applications: - Virus Growth and Replication - Infectious Disease - Toxicity studies of Drug candidates - Production of recombinant proteins - Diagnosis of Diseases (ex: polio vaccine) 2. History Explant (organ) culture: Certain organs or tissues are excised from a body by vivisection or shortly after death. - This was the original method for maintaining cells outside of an organism Advantages- Normal physiological functions and the original organization of the tissue is maintained Disadvantages- No or slow growth. Fresh explants are needed for each experiment. Cell Culture- Single cells are removed from tissue and grown in a flask or dish. Cells may continue to divide for several generations. - Advantages- Easy to manipulate, scale-up is possible (as in subculturing), cells can be frozen and thawed, more control over experimental variables like temperature) - Disadvantages- some in vivo characteristics may be lost, it can be hard to maintain, cells usually only survive for a limited number of divisions. 3. Cell Cycle G0 phase- a period where the cell cycle where cells exist in a quiescent state.
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- Resting state where cells cease to divide. G1 phase- Gap phase- first growth phase; This is the interval between the completion of mitosis and the beginning of S-phase. - G1 allows time for the cell to grow and duplicate its organelles. - DNA repair occurs during this phase. S phase- Synthesis phase- DNA replication. - S phase is sandwiched between the two G phases where the cell continues to grow. G2 phase- Gap phase- second growth phase - Also known as the preparation phase for the cell. - The cell will continue to grow and the organelles are duplicated. - DNA damage assessment and repair, cell growth M phase- where mitosis and cytokinesis occur - Nuclear division and DNA are evenly distinguished into 2 daughter cells. - Cytokenisis is where the organelles divide. - Shortest phase of the cell cycle 4. Cell Cycle Control A process of the cell cycle is triggered by a cell cycle control system. - Each control is assessed at checkpoints during the cell cycle. Cell cycle checkpoints - G1/S, G2/M , M(mitosis to cytokinesis) transition Protein activation - Proteins that control the checkpoints need to be turned on and off quickly.
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ON- through adding a phosphate group OFF- by removing the phosphate group - Enzymes that adds phosphate are kinase - Enzymes that remove a phosphate group are phosphatase Cyclins - Cyclin will bind to the cell cycle kinases (CdKs) to form an active complex Active complex phosphorylates key proteins that are needed to start a step or pass a checkpoint in the cell cycle CdK’s are controlled by the accumulation and destruction of cyclins.
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