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2009 Carbohydrates Part 1

2009 Carbohydrates Part 1 - On the ultimate composition of...

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“On the ultimate composition of simple alimentary substances; with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organised bodies in general” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 355 (1827) “The subject of digestion, however, had for a long time occupied my particular attention: and by degrees I had come to the conclusion, that the principal alimentary matters employed by man, and the more perfect animals, might be reduced to three great classes, namely, the saccharine , the oily , and the albuminous “… William Prout (1785-1850)
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             Carbohydrates in Foods Chemical structure of carbohydrates General characteristics: Composed of C, H, O Polar   (  -OH   and other polar functional groups) Hydrophilic   (high water binding capacity) Simple    carbohydrates “Sugars”   Other small carbohydrates (e.g. ethanol) Complex   carbohydrates Digestible Non-digestible (fiber)
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galactose Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharides  (  5-carbon, 6-carbon “sugars” ) ribose glucose fructose A few foods are rich sources of monosaccharides; most foods contain low concentrations
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Simple carbohydrates (con’t) Maltose (starch hydrolysis product) Q: what monosaccharide(s) comprise maltose? (common table sugar) (milk sugar) 2 monosaccharide units connected by ether bond Disaccharides :
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Invert sugar Viscous liquid (a syrup) Hydrolysis product of sucrose + acid hydrolysis (incomplete) enzyme hydrolysis Invertase, β -fructofuranosidase (complete) sucrose glucose fructose H 2 0
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Simple carbohydrates (con’t) Oligosaccharides: 3-5 monosaccharide units Stachyose and other oligosaccharides are often poorly hydrolyzed to mono- and disaccharides in the small intestine, and pass into the large intestine where they are fermented by bacteria to methane gas commonly found in beans and other legumes
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