2009 Carbohydrates Part 2

2009 Carbohydrates Part 2 - Food Carbohydrates Part 2...

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Food Carbohydrates: Part 2 Simple carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates (“polysaccharides” Digestible (the starches) Non-digestible ( “dietary fiber“ )
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Hydrogen bonding between adjacent (linear) amylose molecules in the formation of a starch gel Starches consisting of only amylopectin will not gel ! (But can thicken effectively)
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"Instant" starch products Partially pre-gelatinized (pre-cooked) starch products 1. Cold-water starches (starches that can thicken without heating at high temps) Briefly cooked (pre-gelatinized) , then spray-dried Granules partially exp anded, readily adsorb water Will swell in cold water (heating not required) Applications: Gravy thickeners (ÒWondraÓ) No-cook (Ò instant) puddings (add milk and stir) 2. Instant rice, potato products Partially pre -cooked & dried rice kernals. Potato flakes Require shorter cooking time to complete gelatinization process
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carboxymethyl starch Chemically modified starch granules “Modified food starch” CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH O CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH O hydroxypropyl starch Modification alters starch-starch interactions, gelling properties Offers manufacturers a wider range of functionality No effect on caloric content (only small proportion of glucoses altered) 2 examples (of many) :
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Use of starches as food ingredients pie fillings puddings Sauces, gravies Choice of specific starch type will depend on the product Advantageous properties of all starches: colorless (translucent or transparent when cooked) virtually tasteless ; odorless
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