2009 Lipids Part 1 - On the ultimate composition of simple...

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On the ultimate composition of simple alimentary substances; with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organised bodies in general Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 355 (1827) “The subject of digestion, however, had for a long time occupied my particular attention: and by degrees I had come to the conclusion, that the principal alimentary matters employed by man, and the more perfect animals, might be reduced to three great classes, namely, the saccharine , the oily , and the albuminous “… William Prout (1785-1850)
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Lipids in Foods "Lipids" Two major categories of food lipids: 1. Fatty acids and triglycerides : Account for > 90% of lipids in most foods 2. Other lipids: Sterols (cholesterol, plant sterols) Fat - s oluble pigments (carotenoids, chlorophylls) Fat - soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, K) Essential oils (terpenes) Organic (contain carbon), limited solubility in water Soluble in organic solvents (alcohols, hydrocarbons, chlorocarbons) Slippery consistency (mouth or touch)
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Functional properties of lipids in foods A. Lipids as foods for direct consumption Butter, margarine, spreads, salad oils, chocolate B. Lipids as components or ingredients : Texture modifiers smooth, creamy, slippery mouthfeels Cooking medi um (frying, sauteeing oils) Shortening agents in flour -based products Carrier for fat -soluble flavor compounds Coloring agents (chlorophylls, carotenoids) Nutrition Source of calories Source of essential fatty acids Solvent/ carrier for fat -soluble vitamins
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      Fatty acids, & lipids containing fatty acids Fatty acids : long chain carboxylic acids CH 3 (CH 2 ) n COOH n = 4 - 24 (even numbers ) Mos t common (foods ) : n = 10 - 18   Saturated fatty acids        Only single bonds between carbon atoms     - C - C -      Uns aturated fatty acids        One or more  carbon -carbon  double bonds :        - C = C  -      " polyuns aturated " :     two or more double bonds  per  fatty acid      " methylene -interrupted "   double bonds  mos t common arrangement :              - C = C  -  C  - C = C-       " conju gated "  double bonds             -C = C  - C = C - 
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Fatty acid nomenclature Example (common name): linoleic acid C H 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 C H = CHCH 2 C H = CHCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 C OOH Formal name: octadecadienoic acid "octadeca -" = eighteen (octa=8 + deca=10) "di" = 2 "e noic" = unsat urated (double bond) ["dienoic" = 2 double bonds] Fatty acid notation : Ò ϖ , ν Χαρβον νυμ βερινγ ανδ δουβλε βονδ λοχατιον εξ. λινολειχ αχιδ 18 2 ν6 , ορ 18 2 ϖ6 (2200ϖ2200= 2200ομ εγ α2200 29 18 = τοταλνυμ βεροφχαρβον ατομ σ 2 = τοταλνυμ βεροφδουβλε βονδσ ν-6 (ϖ-629 = χαρβον νο. οφτηε δουβλε βονδ νεαρεστ τηε ΧΗ 3 ενδ
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2009 Lipids Part 1 - On the ultimate composition of simple...

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