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2009 Pigments in Foods

2009 Pigments in Foods - ome dishes are of such...

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ÒSome dishes are of such indisputable excellence that their appearance alone is capable of arousing a level-headed man's degustatory powers. All those who, when presented with such a dish, show neither the rush of desire, nor the radiance of ecstasy, may justly be deemed unworthy of the honors of the sitting, and its related delights.Ó 'Physiologie du gout' (Meditation XIII) Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826)
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The C o l o r of Foods Color : Important quality attribute Component of "appearance" May override flavor, texture, nutritional quality Categories of Pigments Found in Foods: Naturally occurring pigments Plant, animal, microbial origin Synthetic pigm ents Naturally-occurring; non -naturally occurring Pigments produced during food processing or preparation
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Naturally occurring pigments in foods Plant pigments 1. Chlorophylls Green, olive, brown hues Fat s oluble Phytyl side chain (lipophilic) Porphyrin-bound Mg++ ion Porphyrin ring
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Pheophytinization Loss of Mg++ ion, replacement by H+ Chlorophyll Pheophytin ( bright green ) ( olive - brown ) Reaction accelerated by: a. heat b. low pH (acidic conditions) H H
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Pheophytinization
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2. Carotenoid pigments Fat-soluble Yellow - orange - red hues Structural features of carotenoids : Is oprenoid compound s : compos ed of eight C-5 is oprene units Highly uns aturated [ multiple conjugated double bonds ] Two categories of carotenoi ds: a. ÒCarotenesÓ hydrocarbon carotenoids (C, H only) β -carotene is the major provitamin A carotenoid in foods (partly converted to vitamin A when absorbed)
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b. ÒXanthophyllsÓ O -containing functional groups -OH, epoxide, -C=O, etc. Mos t are not provitamin A carotenoids lutein
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Carotenoid pigments also occur in animal foods , via food chain transfer from plants or from feed additives fish egg yolk butter crustaceans
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Salmon: Wild or Farmed ?
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