2009 Nutritive aspects of foods (part 2)

2009 Nutritive aspects of foods (part 2) - Nutritive...

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Nutritive Aspects of Foods (Part 2)
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Bioavailability of Nutrients from Foods Most nutrients are absorbed in a usable form For these nutrients bioavailability = absorption efficiency Some forms of nutrients are absorbed in chemical forms that are not efficiently utilized (inactive, catabolized, or rapidly excreted) e.g.: Certain oxidation states of selenium (Se: 6 ox. states!) Certain forms of vitamin E Absorbed nutrients are somtimes not retained by the body Retention is sometimes determined by status (of that nutrient)
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Important points: * Not all nutrients are absorbed with the same efficiency * Absorption efficiency of a given nutrient may differ depending on: Food source Chemical form Other meal components Nutritional status of that nutrient (deficiency may upregulate absorption)
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Nutrients that are typically well absorbed Nutrient Abs orption efficiency Triglycerides ( abs orbed as fatty acids) > 95% Protein (absorbed as amino acids) > 90% Carbohydrates (mono -, disaccharides , starches) > 90% Iodine > 98% (but 85-90% is excreted in urine unless iodine deficient)
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Nutrients usually moderately well absorbed Nutrient Absorption efficiency Cholesterol 25 Ð 50% Calcium 22 Ð 60% Heme iron (meats) 15 Ð 35% Zn 10 Ð 50% Mg 10 Ð 30%
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Nutrients usually poorly absorbed Non-heme (inorganic) iron 1 - 10% β-χαροτενε 1 -30% Μανγανεσε < 5% Χηρομ ιυμ < 5%
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Factors Influencing Bioavailability of Nutrients A. Factors related to the nutrient: Chemical form oxidation s tate (minerals , trace elements )
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2009 Nutritive aspects of foods (part 2) - Nutritive...

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