Separating Acids and Neutral Compounds by Solvent Extraction Formal Report

Separating Acids and Neutral Compounds by Solvent Extraction Formal Report

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Rohr Separating Acids and Neutral Compounds by Solvent Extraction Tech 705 By: Zach Rohr June 26, 2010 Chem 2011-011 Abstract: The goal of this experiment is to separate a mixture of carboxylic acid, a phenol, and a neutral compound using solvent extraction techniques. The initial compositions of the three compounds in a mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether are 0.100g of p-toluic acid, 0.100g of p-tert-butylphenol, and 0.060g of acetanilide. Using solvent extraction methods and taking advantage of the polar/non polar properties of the compounds, the compounds were extracted. The percent recovery of acetanilide was 96.7%. the precent recovery of p-toluic acid was 87%. The %percent recovery of p-tert-butylphenol was 28%. The percent recovery for tert-butyl methyl ether was 40%. Introduction:
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The method of solvent extraction used in this experiment to separate the mixture into three compounds was developed mainly using solubility rules. First, two immiscible solvents must be chosen. In order to extract the compounds from the mixture and leave behind any impurities, it is crucial to remember “like dissolves in like”. In most cases one solvent will be polar and the other will be non-polar. Neutral compounds are attracted and dissolved by the non- polar solvents, while polar and ionic compounds are attracted and dissolved by the polar solvent. When attempting to extract a compound, one compound must be dealt with at a time. It is not logical to try to extract both compounds at once, because the purity of the substance will be hindered. To begin the extraction experiment, it is best to dissolve the mixture in the non-polar solvent. By dissolving the mixture in a non-polar solvent it is possible to force each compound to transfer from the non-polar solvent to the polar aqueous solution. In our experiment with p-toluic acid, the addition of NaHCO3 to the non-polar solution forces the p-toluic acid to become an anion. After shaking the mixture the anion will be found in the aqueous later: this is due to the negative charge it carries. After extracting the aqueous solution from the tube HCL (protons) will be added to factor the anion out. It is crucial to pick a base with the correct strength. One only wants the compound needed
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2010 for the course CHEM 2020 taught by Professor Vasiliev during the Spring '09 term at East Tennessee State University.

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Separating Acids and Neutral Compounds by Solvent Extraction Formal Report

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