P67 Lec_Development - Physiology 67 Lecture on Neural...

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Neural cell categories After the ectodermal tissue has folded into the neural tube, another series of signaling interactions determine the type of neural cell to which it gives rise. Many of these neural signals have been characterized as GROWTH FACTORS. The mature nervous system contains a vast array of cell types, which can be divided into two main categories: the neurons , primarily responsible for signaling, and supporting cells called glial cells . Growth factors are proteins that bind to receptors on the cell surface, with the primary result of activating cellular proliferation and/or differentiation. Many growth factors are quite versatile, stimulating cellular division in numerous different cell types; while others are specific to a particular cell-type.
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Growth Factors related to IGF-I and proinsulin promotes proliferation of many cell types primarily of fetal origin variety of cells IGF-II related to IGF-II and proinsulin, also called Somatomedin C promotes proliferation of many cell types primarily liver Insulin-like Growth Factor IGF-I at least 100 different family members anti-inflammatory (suppresses cytokine production and class II MHC expression), promotes wound healing, inhibits macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation activated Th 1 cells (T-helper) and natural killer (NK) cells Transforming Growth Factor TGF- β promotes proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes kidney Erythropoietin
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P67 Lec_Development - Physiology 67 Lecture on Neural...

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