14forest - BIO 20 FOREST 1 FORESTS 1A. CONIFER FORESTS also...

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BIO 20 FOREST 1 FORESTS 1A. CONIFER FORESTS also taiga or boreal forests - dark evergreen trees below tundra - northern hemisphere around Arctic - incl. redwoods in northern Calif. - 11% land surface seasons - pronounced, humid, low evap. - long winters cold & snowy soil - low in nutrients, decompose slowly - deep leaf litter, acidic from bark conifers - fir, larch, pine, spruce - low diversity (uniform) but very dense - needles thick, evergreen, drop gradual - drooping branches to shed snow load - seeds from cones, no flowers grows in shade, incr soil moisture animals - large, short appendages, pale - many migratory (caribou, moose) - carnivores incl. owls, weasels, wolves 1C. CONIFER ECOLOGY productivity - nutrients in trees & litter - usually low (cold, short season) logging - most of the world’s lumber - slow rate of regeneration - forms bogs, expands tundra (Siberia) hydroelectric schemes - dam freshwater rivers & lakes - flood indigenous & waterfowl sites
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14forest - BIO 20 FOREST 1 FORESTS 1A. CONIFER FORESTS also...

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