18marine - BIO 20 MARINE 1 MARINE ECOLOGY 1 PHYSICAL...

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BIO 20 MARINE 1 MARINE ECOLOGY 1. PHYSICAL FACTORS oceans - 70% earth’s surface, 7 km deep - all interconnected by currents salinity - fairly uniform, averages 3.5% - sodium chloride, also S, Mg, K, Ca light - only penetrates upper layer - decreases rapidly with depth temperature - varies less than on land - ranges –9°C arctic to 27°C tropics - also decreases rapidly with depth waves - wind pushes against surface - vertical upwelling brings up cold nutrient-rich water up contl shelf tides - from gravitation pull of moon - usually 2 highs & 2 lows per day - height intensified by pull of sun - spring tide (extra high high-tide) - neap tide (very low high-tide) water pressure - also increases with depth 2. ZONATION stratification - by depth - photic - upper, max light & temp. - mesopelagic - middle, const. temp. - bathypelagic - deepest, dark littoral - shallow water by shoreline pelagic - open ocean away from shore - neretic - above contl shelf, diverse
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18marine - BIO 20 MARINE 1 MARINE ECOLOGY 1 PHYSICAL...

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