Pap smear for secondary prevention

Pap smear for secondary prevention - Running head:...

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Running head: PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR AND CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING 1 Papanicolaou Smear for Early Detection and Prevention of Cervical Disease in Low Socioeconomic African American Female Sojung Suk University of California Los Angeles
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PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR AND CERVICALCANCER SCREENING 2 Papanicolaou Smear forLow Socioeconomic African American Female The incidence of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) is very high in United States and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is exceptionally common viral disease among U.S. population. According to the report by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly 20 million Americansare infected with HPV and have 6 million of new incidence each year (“Sexually Transmitted,” n.d.). The United States Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) summarized the remarkable fact about cervical cancer. Cervical cancer remains the tenth leading cause of all cancer related death and shows significant relationship with the high-risk strains of HPV infection, commonly transmitted sexual intercourse (“Screening for Cervical Cancer” n.d.). Dunne et al’s study also claimed that high-risk Genital Human Papilloma Viruses have been proved to cause cervical cancer, which are found in 99% of cervical cancer patients (Dunne et al., 2007). Early recognition through routine cancer screeningsuch as, cervical cytology, Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, the principal screening test for cervical disease have been contributing prevention of disease and further development. Dunne et al. (2007) analyzed prevalence of HPV infection in detail.The report shows that the overall HPV prevalence in U.S. females aged 14 to 59 years reaches 26.8 %with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 23.3-30.9% and non-Hispanic African Americans reached highest prevalence rate at 39.2% with 95%CI ( P <0.001)(Dunne et al., 2007). Their multivariate analysis of factors linked with HPV infection among sexually active females indicated that young female population between age of 20 to 24 have highest rate and the prevalence of HPV infection escalate from 14 years through 24 years and then shows decline at older ages.Notably, Dunne et al’s data indicated that the burden of Prevalence of HPV infection among low socioeconomic
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PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR AND CERVICALCANCER SCREENING 3 groups are very high, which have less than high school education and below poverty family income in below poverty (Dunne et al., 2007).In general, the cancer death rate is higher in non- Hispanic African American by 34% and it is two times more than other ethnicities(Parkin, Ferlay, & Pisani 2005). Therefore, cervical health screen is cruciallyneeded for the low socioeconomic African American female populationfor prevention of further developing of cervicalcancer. The Test Procedure, Recommendation and Validity
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2010 for the course SON N 168 taught by Professor Catherinegabster during the Winter '10 term at UCLA.

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Pap smear for secondary prevention - Running head:...

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