Midterm Study guide

Midterm Study guide - 1 Derives from the Greek words:epi...

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1 Derives from the Greek words: epi (upon)+ demos (people)+ logy (study of) Definition:“Epidemiology is the study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution.” Identify the etiology or cause of a disease and the relevant risk factors Determine the extent of disease found in the community Study the natural history and prognosis of disease To evaluate both existing and newly developed preventive and therapeutic measures and modes of health care delivery Provide foundation for developing public policy relating to environmental problems, genetic issues, and other considerations regarding disease prevention and health promotion Work and environmental exposures/ Hippocrates (link of work to disease) Occupation and Health/ Ramazzini 1700 (founder of occupational medicine) Small pox /Jenner 1768 (observations that dairy maids were immune) Scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps/ Percival Pott 1775 Hospital Care Crimean War Soldiers/ Florence Nightingale mid-1800s Cholera in England/ Snow mid-1800s (germ theory) Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health 1964 The study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in human populations. Why study this? Disease develops in some persons and not others Genetic predisposition BRCA1 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk, Nutrition, Cruciferous vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk, Immune status (ex: development of shingles among immune compromised adults), Socio- economic status We can use Epidemiology for planning Health Services, determine the burden of disease in a community to guide: Types and location of health facilities, Screening programs, prevention programs, Training programs for future health care providers ex)hypertension: important risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and renal disease, and, as such exerts a substantial public health burden in the US. We can use Epidemiology for Evaluation of Health Services, Effectiveness in reducing burden of disease, Cost-effectiveness $$$ (It may be cheaper to prevent hypertension through diet and exercise than to treat hypertension), Efficiency (all costs including discomfort, pain, disability, social stigma, quality of life) Although morbidity and mortality related to hypertension have decreased since the 1970s, current levels of control remain low with 28% of hypertensive adults unaware of their condition and while 39% of those who need treatment remain untreated. Hypertension affects all populations but there are racial and ethnic disparities with regard to prevalence and treatment. We can use Epidemiology for Informing Public Policy, Foundation for regulatory decisions: Standards, for
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2010 for the course SON N50 taught by Professor Carpenter during the Summer '09 term at UCLA.

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Midterm Study guide - 1 Derives from the Greek words:epi...

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