Final examination for Thursday

Final examination for Thursday - Chapter 6 The field of...

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Chapter 6 The field of cognition is a central one in the field of adult development and aging. Researchers working within the information processing perspective regard the cognitive functioning of humans as comparable to the functioning of a computer. Theories about changes in the overall quality of information processing in adulthood are based on the results of studies on psychomotor speed, which is the amount of time it takes us to process a signal, prepare a response, and then execute that response. General slowing hypothesis: the increase in reaction time reflects a general decline of information processing speed within the nervous system of the aging individual. Related to this idea is the age- complexity hypothesis, which process that through slowing of central processes in eh nervous system, age differences increase as tasks become more complex and our processing resources are stretched more and more to their limit. Brinley plot: the reaction times of an older group of adults plotted against the times of younger adults on a graph Attention involves the ability to focus or concentrate on a portion of experience while ignoring other features of experience, to be able to shift that focus as demanded by the situation and to be able to coordinate information from multiple sources. The theory of attention resources and aging –older adults have less energy available for cognitive operations than do their younger counterparts across a wide domain of tasks. The inhibitory deficit hypothesis: aging reduces the individual’s ability to inhibit or tune our irrelevant information. When the individual is given information from two input sources, everyone is disadvantaged to a certain degree when monitoring more than one input, the disadvantage becomes progressively greater in increasingly older groups of adults. The context processing deficiency hypothesis –aging affects our ability to take the context of information into account when making judgments in situations such as the sustained attention task (to maintain our attention over a prolonged period of time) Working memory –the part of memory that keeps information temporarily available and active, seems to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. Long-term memory –the repository of information that is held for a period of time ranging from several minutes to a lifetime Episodic memory –memory for events or episodes Semantic memory –the equivalent to knowledge and it includes the words and definitions of words found in your vocabulary or storehouse of historical facts.
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Final examination for Thursday - Chapter 6 The field of...

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