ENGR 213.lecture 2.Students

ENGR 213.lecture 2.Students - Bioengineering at the...

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Bioengineering at the  molecular scale Lecture 2 Engr 213
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Admin Reading: Chapter 3
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Quote of the Day    The best way to have a good idea is  to have a lot of ideas.  Linus Pauling  
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Learning Objectives Describe  the types of bonding that can  occur among molecules and how these  can affect their behavior. Discuss  the effects of protein structure  on its behavior Discuss  applications of engineering at  the molecular scale
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From simple to complex Amino Acids Proteins RNA DNA & Genes
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Common Elements Oxygen 65% of body mass. Carbon 18.5% Hydrogen9.5% Nitrogen 3.2% Others : Calcium, Sodium, Potassium,  Chlorine, Sulfur, Phosphor, Magnesium,  Iodine, Iron.
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Bonding Primary Bonding Covalent Ionic Metallic Secondary Bonding Hydrogen
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Na (metal) unstable Cl (nonmetal) unstable electron + - Coulombic Attraction Na (cation) stable Cl (anion) stable Ionic Bonding Occurs between + and - ions. Requires  electron transfer. Large difference in electronegativity required. Example:  NaCl
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Give up electrons Acquire electrons He - Ne - Ar - Kr - Xe - Rn - F 4.0 Cl 3.0 Br 2.8 I 2.5 At 2.2 Li 1.0 Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb 0.8 Cs 0.7 Fr 0.7 H 2.1 Be 1.5 Mg 1.2 Ca 1.0 Sr 1.0 Ba 0.9 Ra 0.9 Ti 1.5 Cr 1.6 Fe 1.8 Ni 1.8 Zn 1.8 As 2.0 CsCl MgO CaF 2 NaCl O 3.5 Examples:  Ionic Bonding Predominant bonding in  Ceramics
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C: has 4 valence e, needs 4 more H: has 1 valence e, needs 1 more Electronegativities are comparable. shared electrons from carbon atom shared electrons from hydrogen atoms H H H H C CH 4 Covalent Bonding Requires  shared electrons Example:  Methane, CH
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He - Ne - Ar - Kr - Xe - Rn - F 4.0 Cl 3.0 Br 2.8 I 2.5 At 2.2 Li 1.0 Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb 0.8 Cs 0.7 Fr 0.7 H 2.1 Be 1.5 Mg 1.2 Ca 1.0 Sr 1.0 Ba 0.9 Ra 0.9 Ti 1.5 Cr 1.6 Fe 1.8 Ni 1.8 Zn 1.8 As 2.0 SiC C(diamond) H 2 O C 2.5 H 2 Cl 2 F 2 Si 1.8 Ga 1.6 GaAs Ge 1.8 O 2.0 column IVA Sn 1.8 Pb 1.8 Covalent Bonding  Examples Molecules with  nonmetals Molecules with  metals  and  nonmetals Elemental solids (RHS of Periodic Table)  Compound solids (about  column IVA )
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+ - secondary bonding + - H Cl H Cl secondary bonding secondary bonding H H H H H 2 H 2 secondary bonding ex: liquid H 2 asymmetric electron clouds + - + - secondary bonding -general case: -ex: liquid HCl -ex: polymer Secondary Bonding Arises from interaction between  dipoles Fluctuating  dipoles Permanent  dipoles -molecule induced
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Type Ionic Covalent Metallic Secondary Bond Energy Large! Variable
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ENGR 213.lecture 2.Students - Bioengineering at the...

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