ENGR 213.Lecture 7

ENGR 213.Lecture 7 - 2/22/2010 The Technology of Last...

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2/22/2010 1 The Technology of Last Resort: Total Artificial Heart ENGR 213 Learning Objectives 1. Explain purpose and function of heart 2. Define the problem or need for a replacement 3. Explore previous or current replacement options 1. Explain failed approaches 2. Discuss future directions The Heart: Overview of Function ` Function ` Pump oxygenated blood to various organs in body ` Pump deoxygenated blood to oxygen supplier (the lungs) ` How does it achieve this? ` Human heart (and other mammals) ` Two circulations ± Systemic circulation to distribute oxygen and nutrients to body’s organs ± Left heart (left atrium, left ventricle) ± Pulmonary circulation to remove waste, re-oxygenate the blood ± Right heart (right atrium, right ventricle) ` Octopus (fun fact): ` Three hearts ± Systemic heart ± Two branchial hearts to pump blood to gills, where it is re-oxygenated
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2/22/2010 2 Why the difference? ` Different types of circulations ` Different contexts ` Octopuses cannot have large organs ` Live in lairs with restrictive openings for protection from predators ` Must be able to squeeze through small holes or crevices Important to understand reasons for native design. This can impact decisions on new design specifications Source: National Geographic News: ht p:/ news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/01/070116-octopus-video.html The Heart ` Flow is driven through the circulation due to pressure gradients ` Pumping action of the heart results in pulsatile pressure profile ` Chamber Morphology ` Mammal Heart: Four chambers ` Right Heart (Low Pressure - pulmonary) ± Right Atrium, Right Ventricle ` Left Heart (High Pressure - systemic) ± Left atrium, Left Ventricle ` Amphibian/Reptile Heart: Three chambers ` Two atria to receive blood ` Single ventricle to eject blood (results in mixing) Mammal Heart: Four Chambers Amphibian Heart: Three Chambers Design Approach for Total Artificial Heart ` Understand purpose and function of heart ` Define the problem or need for a replacement ` Explore previous or current replacement options ` Understand failed approaches ` Specify Problem Formulation ` Design variables ` Constraints ` Objectives ` Models
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2/22/2010 3 Heart Failure ` Afflicts more than 5 million people in US ` >280,000 deaths annually ` $35B annual cost ` End-stage heart failure necessitates 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 79 80 85 90 95 00 05 Discharges in Thousands Years necessitates transplantation ` Without transplant, life expectancy <50% after 1-2 years* ` 2006: 2192 heart transplants performed in US # ` 25% of patients are under 35 Male Female Hospital discharges for heart failure by sex # (United States: 1979-2005). # Source: American Heart Association Statistics, 2008 Up *Source: R. Hajar, The Artificial Heart, Heart Views 8:2, August 2005 Heart Transplantation ` Best Option: ` 1 year survival rate: 94% * ` 5 year survival rate: 78% * ` Availability ` Thousands more on the transplant list than available transplants ` Waiting for an appropriate donor can be long and stressful ` Suitability ` Transplant must be approved by team of doctors, nurses, social workers, bioethicists ` Review medical history, diagnostic and psychosocial test results, social history `
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This note was uploaded on 08/13/2010 for the course ENGR ENGR 213 taught by Professor Griffin during the Spring '10 term at Cal Poly.

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ENGR 213.Lecture 7 - 2/22/2010 The Technology of Last...

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