LN8-OS - FIT1001-Computer Systems FIT1001 Computer Systems...

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1 www.monash.edu.au FIT1001-Computer Systems www.monash.edu.au FIT1001- Computer Systems Lecture Notes 8 Operating Systems LN 8: FIT1001 Computer Systems 3 LN 8: Learning Objectives Function of OS Brief history of OS Types of OS OS activities – process management and scheduling – memory management – file management – I/O – security/protection www.monash.edu.au Function of Operating Systems
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2 LN 8: FIT1001 Computer Systems 5 Each layer provides an abstraction for the layer below This module: Level 3 Software at levels 3, 4 and 5 run below the application software and above the ISA Programs at these levels grant access to hardware resources that carry out commands Computer Organization (LN1) LN 8: FIT1001 Computer Systems 6 Background (from LN7) Users see the computer through their application programs – Executed by computer hardware System software – a collection of programs and associated data that supports the use of a computer system – Program translation tools (LN7) Operating system (LN8) LN 8: FIT1001 Computer Systems 7 System Software Banking system Airline reservation Web browser Compilers Editors Command interpreters Operating system Operating system Machine language (Micro-architecture) Physical devices Applications programs System software Hardware LN 8: FIT1001 Computer Systems 8 Functions of the Operating System Extending the machine – Present users with a view of the underlying machine that is easier to program than the machine > Provide services that a programmer can obtain using system calls, system calls, e.g., file opening, read and write operations Managing resources – Provide an orderly and controlled allocation of processors, memories and I/O devices among the programs competing for them > E.g., several programs trying to print to the same printer
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3 www.monash.edu.au Brief History of Operating Systems LN 8: FIT1001 Computer Systems 10 History of Operating Systems – 1 st Generation (1936 (1936 -1953) Vacuum tubes 1953) Vacuum tubes and plugboards A single group of people operated, maintained and used the machine Programming was done in absolute machine language – until 1950 – by wiring plugboards – after 1950 – with punched cards No operating system LN 8: FIT1001 Computer Systems 11 (1954 (1954 -1964) Transistors 1964) Transistors and mainframes mainframes – cost several millions of $ Æ afforded only by large organizations – used mainly for scientific calculations batch system – read several jobs jobs from punch cards onto tape (off line) – mount tape onto mainframe – process the jobs >a monitor (precursor of the operating system) – interprets instructions about how to process a job – when one job is finished, the monitor loads a job from tape into memory, and runs it > input and output of jobs are on tape – remove the tape from mainframe and print the results (off line) History of Operating Systems – 2nd Generation
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LN8-OS - FIT1001-Computer Systems FIT1001 Computer Systems...

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