LN5-isa - FIT1001-Computer Systems FIT1001- Computer...

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LN 5: Instruction Set Architecture 1 www.monash.edu.au FIT1001-Computer Systems www.monash.edu.au FIT1001- Computer Systems Lecture Notes 5 Instruction Set Architecture LN 5: FIT1001 Computer Systems 3 LN 5: Learning Objectives Instruction sets – definition and features – Instruction types – Operand organization – Number of operands and instruction length – Addressing – Instruction execution – pipelining Features of two machine instruction sets (CISC and RISC) LN 5: FIT1001 Computer Systems 4 Introduction Build upon the ideas and concepts from LN4 Machine instructions – Opcodes and operands High level languages – Hide detail of the architecture from the programmer – Easier to program Why learn computer architectures and assembly language? – To understand how the computer works – To write more efficient programs
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LN 5: Instruction Set Architecture 2 LN 5: FIT1001 Computer Systems 5 Instruction Sets Instruction sets are differentiated by Instructions – types of instructions – instruction length and number of operands Operands – type (addresses, numbers, characters) and access mode – location (CPU or memory) – organization (stack or register based) > number of addressable registers Memory organization – byte- or word-addressable CPU instruction execution – with/without pipelining LN 5: FIT1001 Computer Systems 6 Instruction Sets – Design Decisions (I) The instruction set format is critical to the machine’s architecture Performance of instruction set architectures is measured by – Main memory space occupied by a program – Instruction complexity – Instruction length (in bits) – Total number of instructions LN 5: FIT1001 Computer Systems 7 Instruction Sets – Design Decisions (II) Instruction types Operand organization Number of operands and instruction length Addressing Instruction execution – pipelining www.monash.edu.au Instruction Types
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LN 5: Instruction Set Architecture 3 LN 5: FIT1001 Computer Systems 9 Instruction Types (I) Arithmetic – Operations on integer and floating point numbers – Many instruction sets provide different arithmetic instructions for various data sizes – Different instructions can exist for various memory/register access types Data transfer – Transfer data between registers, and between memory and registers Logical – Perform Boolean operations, e.g., AND, OR and XOR LN 5: FIT1001 Computer Systems 10 Instruction Types (II) Bit manipulation – Used for setting and resetting individual bits (or groups of bits) within a data word – Include arithmetic and logical shift, and rotate instructions Control transfer – Include jumps, branches and procedure calls I/O – Varies greatly from architecture to architecture – Sample schemes are: polling and interrupt driven Special purpose – Include instructions for string processing, high level language support, protection, and cache management
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This note was uploaded on 08/15/2010 for the course FIT 1001 taught by Professor Egerton during the Three '10 term at Monash.

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LN5-isa - FIT1001-Computer Systems FIT1001- Computer...

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