LN4-Arch

LN4-Arch - FIT1001 - Computer Systems FIT1001- Computer...

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1 www.monash.edu.au FIT1001 - Computer Systems www.monash.edu.au FIT1001- Computer Systems Lecture Notes 4 Computer Architecture LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 3 LN 4: Learning Objectives Computer architecture – Components of a simple central processing unit: > registers, ALU, control unit and buses – Other hardware components of a computer: > Buses, clocks, peripheral devices, memory Features of computers Speed and reliability Machine language and Assembly language SMIPS computer architecture – Components and CPU registers – Memory organization Fetch–decode–execute cycle and its use to execute instructions in a simple computer LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 4 Computer Architecture LN1 – general overview of computer systems LN2 – how data is stored and manipulated by various computer system components LN3 – the fundamental components of digital circuits We can now understand how computer components work, and how they fit together to create computer systems
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2 LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 5 Hardware Components of a Typical Computer Peripheral Devices Central Processing Unit (CPU) Memory Buses allow components to pass data to each other LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 6 Hardware Components of a Typical Computer – CPU Central Processing Unit (CPU) Performs the basic operations Consists of two parts: Arithmetic / Logic Unit (ALU) – manipulates data Control Unit – coordinates machine’s activities Memory Peripheral Devices Central Processing Unit (CPU) LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 7 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Fetches, decodes and executes program instructions written in machine language Two principal parts of the CPU Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) > Connected to registers and memory by a data bus > All three comprise the Datapath Control unit > Sends signals to CPU components to perform sequenced operations LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 8 CPU: Registers, ALU and Control Unit Registers – Hold data that can be readily accessed by the CPU – Implemented using D flip-flops > A 32-bit register requires 32 D flip-flops Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) – Carries out logical and arithmetic operations – Often affects the status register (e.g., overflow, carry) – Operations are controlled by the control unit Control unit (CU) – Policeman or traffic manager – Determines which actions to carry out according to the values in the instruction register and the status register
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3 LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 9 Hardware Components of a Typical Computer – Memory Main Memory Holds programs and data Stores bits in fixed-sized chunks: “ word ” (8, 16, 32 or 64 bits) Each word has a unique address The words can be accessed in any order Æ random-access memory or “RAM” Peripheral Devices Central Processing Unit (CPU) Memory LN 4: FIT1001 Computer Systems 10 Memory Consists of a linear array of addressable storage cells A memory address is represented by an unsigned integer
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LN4-Arch - FIT1001 - Computer Systems FIT1001- Computer...

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