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If 5 is subtracted from 11 the minuend is 11 the

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Unformatted text preview: 3434 + 4545 + 5656. (A) 17,171 (B) 17,170 (C) 17,160 (D) 17,280 (E) 17,270 2. 5. 3. www.petersons.com Operations with Whole Numbers and Decimals 3 2. SUBTRACTION OF WHOLE NUMBERS The number from which we subtract is called the minuend. The number which we take away is called the subtrahend. The answer in subtraction is called the difference. If 5 is subtracted from 11, the minuend is 11, the subtrahend is 5, and the difference is 6. Since we cannot subtract a larger number from a smaller one, we often must borrow in performing a subtraction. Remember that when we borrow, because of our base 10 number system, we reduce the digit to the left by 1, but increase the right-hand digit by 10. Example: 54 – 38 Since we cannot subtract 8 from 4, we borrow 1 from 5 and change the 4 to 14. We are really borrowing 1 from the tens column and, therefore, add 10 to the ones column. Then we can subtract. Solution: 4 14 –38 16 Sometimes we must borrow across several columns. Example: 503 – 267 We cannot subtract 7 from 3 and cannot borrow from 0. Therefore we reduce the 5 by one and make the 0 into a 10. Then we can borrow 1 from the 10, making it a 9. This makes the 3 into 13. Solution: 4 10 3 – 2 67 4 9 13 – 26 7 23 6 Exercise 2 1. Subtract 803 from 952. (A) 248 (B) 148 (C) 249 (D) 149 (E) 147 From the sum of 837 and 415, subtract 1035. (A) 217 (B) 216 (C) 326 (D) 227 (E) 226 From 1872 subtract the sum of 76 and 43. (A) 1754 (B) 1838 (C) 1753 (D) 1839 (E) 1905 4. Find the difference between 732 and 237. (A) 496 (B) 495 (C) 486 (D) 405 (E) 497 By how much does the sum of 612 and 315 exceed the sum of 451 and 283? (A) 294 (B) 1661 (C) 293 (D) 197 (E) 193 2. 5. 3. www.petersons.com 4 Chapter 1 3. MULTIPLICATION OF WHOLE NUMBERS The answer to a multiplication problem is called the product. The numbers being multiplied are called factors of the product. When multiplying by a number containing two or more digits, place value is extremely important when writing partial products. When we multiply 537 by 72, for example, we multiply first by 2 and then by 7. However, w...
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