Chapter 4 Study Guide

Chapter 4 Study Guide - Chapter 4 Study Guide Why did...

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Chapter 4 Study Guide Why did England’s leaders see the colonies as indispensable? Colonies supplied raw materials unavailable in the mother country, and colonists and Indians provided a healthy market for English manufactured goods. What four types of regulation were used to put mercantilism “into action?” 1)The first type of regulation aimed at ending Dutch dominance in England’s overseas trade. Beginning with the Navigation Act of 1651, all trade in the empire had to be conducted in English or colonial ships, wth crews of which at least half were Englishmen or colonists. The act stimulated rapid growth in both England’s merchant marine and New England’s shipping industry. Shipbuilding and earnings from what was called the carrying trade soon became the most profitable sector of New England’s economy. 2) The second type of legislation stipulated certain colonial goods, called enumerated products, could be shipped only to England or to another English colony. These goods initially included tobacco, sugar, indigo, and cotton; other products, such as rice, were added later. These laws also required European goods to pass through England before they could be shipped to the colonies. When these goods entered English ports, they were taxed, making them more expensive and encouraging colonists to buy English-made items. 3&4) Enhanced the advantage of English manufacturers who produced for the colonial market. Parliament subsidized certain goods, including linen, gunpowder, and silks, to allow manufacturers to undersell European competitors in the colonies. Other laws protected English manufacturers from colonial competition by prohibiting colonists from manufacturing wool, felt hats, and iron on a large scale. How did the colonies fare under these regulations? Although some tobacco and rice planters complained about trade restraints, the colonies as a whole prospered. Between 1650 and 1770, the colonial economy expanded twice as fast as England’s. Colonist’s enjoyed protected markets for their staple crops and low prices on English imports. Colonial merchants, operating on equal terms with English traders, took full advantage of commercial opportunities within the empire. What were the most valuable colonial products? Sugar from the West Indies, Tobacco from Chesapeake, Rice from Lower South, Grain from Middle Colonies, Fish from New England What did the colonies import from England? By the late 1760s, over $4million worth of English manufactured goods flowed into the colonies each year. This import trade satisfied a demand for items that could not be produced; at least not cheaply in North America. Bales of English cloth and leather, crates of glassware and pottery, casks of nails and lead shot piled onto the wharves of Philadelphia and New York. Dockworkers emptied ships’ holds of wrought iron, brass, and copper, barrels of refined sugar, and bundles of beaver hats. Some of there goods- ironware, sugar, hats-were made of raw materials from the colonies.
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Where did colonial manufacturing take place?
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This note was uploaded on 08/16/2010 for the course HIS 2053 taught by Professor Kelly during the Spring '08 term at Texas San Antonio.

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Chapter 4 Study Guide - Chapter 4 Study Guide Why did...

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