Chapter 8 Study Guide - Chapter 8 Study Guide(abbreviated...

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Chapter 8 Study Guide (abbreviated) Forging a New Government (pp. 226-230) What challenges did the new Congress face? The Congress that assembled in New York from 1789 to 1791 faced a challenge scarcely less daunting than that of the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It had to give form and substance to the framework of the new national government outlined un the Constitution. Executive departments had to be established, a federal judiciary organized, sources of revenue found, terms of international trade and foreign policy worked out, and the commitment to add a bill of rights to the Constitution honored. What did Madison push for? Why? He pushed for speedy action on the Bill of Rights, which the Federalists had promised to add to the Constitution during the ratification debate.To allay the fears of Antifederalists that the Constitution What did the Bill of Rights guarantee? The Bill of Rights guaranteed religious freedom, freedom of expression, and safeguarding of individuals and their property against arbitrary legal proceedings. The Bill of Rights broadened the government’s base of popular support, The Bill of Rights also assured Americans that the central government would not try to impose a uniform culture. What is the cabinet? A body of advisors to the President composed of the heads of the executive departments of government. How was the Judiciary Act of 1789 a compromise? It balanced the concerns of the Anti Federalists and states’ rights advocates with the concerns of nationalists who strongly opposed leaving matters of national law up to state courts. It created a hierarchical national judiciary based on 13 federal district courts, one for each state. What was the government’s main source of revenue? The government’s most pressing need was for revenue. Aware that Congress under the Articles of Confederation had been crippled by its inability to secure a reliable source of income, Madison acted to put the finances of the new federal government on a firm footing. Nearly everyone agreed that the government’s chief source of income should be a tariff on imported goods and tonnage duties on ships entering American ports. The United States imported most of its manufactured goods, as well as many raw materials, and foreign owned ships accounted for nearly half of entering tonnage.
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What was the controversy about the tariff? The Tariff Act of 1789 was designed primarily to raise revenue, not protect American manufacturers by keeping out forcing goods with high duties. It levied a duty of 5 percent on most imported goods but imposed tariffs as high as 50 percent on a limited number of items, such as steel, cloth, salt, and tobacco. The debate of the Tariff Act provoked some sectional sparring. Manufacturers, who were concerned in the North, wanted high tariffs for protection against foreign competition. In contrast, farmers and southern planters wanted low tariffs to keep down the cost of manufactured goods they purchased.
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