Lambacher04 - Appl. Phys. A 79, 16071611 (2004) DOI:

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DOI: 10.1007/s00339-004-2991-5 Appl. Phys. A 79, 1607–1611 (2004) Invited rapid communication Materials Science & Processing Applied Physics A a. lambacher 1 m. jenkner 2 m. merz 1 b. eversmann 2 r.a. kaul 1 f. hofmann 2 r. thewes 2 p. fromherz 1, ) Electrical imaging of neuronal activity by multi-transistor-array (MTA) recording at 7 . 8 µ m resolution 1 Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Membrane and Neurophysics, 82152 Martinsried / München, Germany 2 InFneon Technologies AG, Corporate Research, 81669 München, Germany Received: 12 July 2004 / Accepted: 21 July 2004 Published online: 5 August 2004 • © Springer-Verlag 2004 ABSTRACT We report on a novel method for two-dimensional electrical mapping of neuronal activity using a 1 mm 2 array of 16384 sensor Feld-effect transistors fabri- cated by an extended CMOS (complementary metal oxide silicon) technology. The contact from neurons to chip is made by an insulating oxide on the chip surface that provides a purely capacitive drive of the sensor transistors. As a test system for multi-transistor-array (MTA) recording we use cultured neurons from the pond snail. We present electrical maps of an individual neuron and of a small neuronal network at a resolution of 7 . 8 µ m. MTA recording provides a tool for imaging the network dynamics of cultured nerve cells and brain slices for studies in neurobiology and biosensorics. PACS 87.17.Nn, 87.80.Xa, 73.40.Mr 1 Introduction To elucidate the dynamics of neuronal networks, it is imperative to observe the electrical activity of a great number of nerve cells or of brain tis- sue at high spatial resolution for an extended period of time. Sensors are re- quired that have a high spatial resolution together with a large sensitive area in order to observe large neuronal assem- blies at the resolution of single cells. ±ulFlling both requirements at the same time requires a very large number of active elements. ±or electrical record- ing in model systems on a solid sub- strate, such as dissociated nerve cells or slices of brain tissue, three approaches have been followed: optical recording with membrane-bound dyes [1–4], ex- tracellular recording with planar metal electrodes [5–10] and extracellular volt- age measurements with linear arrays of electrolyte-insulator-silicon (EIS) Feld- ) ±ax: +49-89 / 8578-2822, E-mail: Supplementary material to this paper is available in electronic form on Springer’s server at http: // / 10.1007 / s00339-004-2991-5 effect transistors [11–18]. Up to now, voltage sensitive dyes suffer from pho- totoxicity that prohibits long-term stud- ies, current arrays of 64 metal elec- trodes with a pitch in the order of 100 micrometers do not allow map- ping at sufFcent spatial resolution and with linear arrays of EIS Feld-effect transistors mapping at resolution of 4 micrometers is restricted to one di- mension due to spatial constraints with routing the contact wires.
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Lambacher04 - Appl. Phys. A 79, 16071611 (2004) DOI:

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