Final_Fuzzball_Reproductive_Genetics

Final_Fuzzball_Reproductive_Genetics - Reproductive...

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Reproductive Reproductive Genetics Genetics A Fuzzy Tale A Fuzzy Tale
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Once up on a time, the Fuzzballs lived in perfect harmony with one another because of their just and Noble King Fuzz and his beautiful wife, Queen Fuzzella. They were very bright and happy creatures!
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However, Fuzz and Fuzzella were not completely happy, for they longed to have a baby Fuzzball.
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Fuzzballs are very curious. Fuzz and Fuzzella knew that Fuzzballs reproduced sexually, but they wondered how their genes would produce the Fuzzball prince or princess. SMOOCH
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So the King and Queen searched far and wide to find a sorceress who would divulge the secret of Fuzzball reproductive genetics. This is the tale that she told them.
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Fuzzballs have four pairs of chromosomes (n=4 and 2n=8) in their nucleus. Fuzzballs are diploid , which means that they have eight chromosomes in each somatic cell. One set of chromosomes comes from the mother and one from the father. Cell Membrane Cell Cytoplasm containing organelles, etc.) Nuclear Membrane Nucleus (storage of genetic material)
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Each chromosome is composed of one linear, very long and tightly wound double-stranded DNA molecule.
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Each chromosome has a section of tightly condensed DNA called the centromere . The ends of each chromosome are known as telomeres . There are two telomeres on each chromosome (because each long linear DNA molecule has two ends!). Centromere Telomere Telomere
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Out of four pairs of chromosomes, three pairs are homologous and autosomal (carry genes with non- gender-specific function), and the fourth pair (XX or XY) determines the sex of the Fuzzball. X and Y are sex chromosomes . Autosomal chromosomes are named 1, 2 and 3. Chromosome 1 is the biggest; 3 is the smallest. 1 2 3 x x x y
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Chromosomes are homologous if they carry the same genes (though possibly different alleles). The gene for Fuzzballs’ brightness ( ) is always and only on chromosome #2, and the gene for fuzziness ( ) is always and only on chromosome #1. Homologous chromosomes are the same size and shape. One chromosome was inherited from the Fuzzball’s mother, and its homolog was inherited from the Fuzzball’s father. Chromosomes that do not carry the same genes are non-homologous . They differ in size and shape. 2 2 2 1
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Fuzzballs are diploid organisms. They inherit one set of chromosomes, which carries set of genes, from their mother and one from their father, so they have two copies of each gene in each normal somatic cell. Chromosomes in King Fuzz Chromosomes from King Fuzz’s Mother Chromosomes from King Fuzz’s Father
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These copies are called alleles . One gene can have numerous versions (alleles), however, each Fuzzball can have a maximum of two alleles for a gene (one from mother and one from father). The alleles can be either the same or different. Note:
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This note was uploaded on 08/17/2010 for the course BIOL BIOL139 taught by Professor Rose during the Spring '10 term at Waterloo.

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Final_Fuzzball_Reproductive_Genetics - Reproductive...

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