Inflamatory Bowel - * Inflammatory Bowel Disease NUR 201 D...

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Unformatted text preview: * Inflammatory Bowel Disease NUR 201 D Lee, MSN, RN * Immunologically-related disorders that include *Crohn's disease *Ulcerative colitis * Inflammatory Bowel Disease * Clinical manifestations are varied for both conditions *Long periods of remission interspersed with episodes of acute inflammation *Both diseases can be debilitating * Inflammatory Bowel Disease * Cause is unknown * Possible causes: *Infectious agent *Autoimmune reaction *Food allergies *Heredity * Ulcerative Colitis Description * Characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the colon and rectum * May occur at any age * Peaks between ages 15 and 25 years * Equally affects both sexes * Ulcerative Colitis Etiology and Pathophysiology * Diffuse inflammation *Involves mucosa and submucosa *Alternate periods of exacerbations and remissions * Ulcerative Colitis Etiology and Pathophysiology * Usually begins in the rectum and sigmoid colon and spreads up the colon in a continuous pattern * Mucosa is hyperemic and edematous in the affected area * Acute Ulcerative Colitis * Ulcerative Colitis Etiology and Pathophysiology * Multiple abscesses develop in the intestinal glands *Abscesses break through into the submucosa, leaving ulcerations * Ulcerative Colitis Etiology and Pathophysiology * Ulcerations destroy the mucosal epithelium, causing bleeding and diarrhea *Fluid and electrolyte losses *Protein loss *Pseudopolyps * Ulcerative Colitis Etiology and Pathophysiology * Granulation tissue develops * Mucosa musculature becomes thickened, shortening the colon * Ulcerative Colitis Clinical Manifestations * Most commonly presents as a chronic disorder with mild-to-severe acute exacerbations that occur at unpredictable intervals over many years * Major symptoms: *Bloody diarrhea *Abdominal pain * Ulcerative Colitis Complications * Complications may be classified as: *Intestinal *Extraintestinal * Ulcerative Colitis Complications * Intestinal complications: *Hemorrhage *Strictures *Perforation *Toxic megacolon *Colonic dilation * Ulcerative Colitis Complications * Toxic megacolon *Dilation and paralysis of the colon *Occurs in 5% of patients *Associated with perforation * Ulcerative Colitis Complications * Extraintestinal complications: *May be directly related to the colitis *May be nonspecific complications mediated by a disturbance in the immune system...
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Inflamatory Bowel - * Inflammatory Bowel Disease NUR 201 D...

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