Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide - Big Six: Hierarchy: Hierarchy within...

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Unformatted text preview: Big Six: Hierarchy: Hierarchy within society or relationships. Variation: People speak differently Performance: Act differently around different people. Assessment/Monitoring: Judging of sorts. Possibly not conscience. Socialization: Development to fit a role. 2 cultures model of gendered speech (and its problems) Dominance theory- claims that many of the so-called typical features of " women's language " are in fact features of " powerless language ". O'Barr and Atkins, who were the first to raise this claim, maintain that the term "powerless language" is "more descriptive of the social status of those who speak in this manner, and [it is a term] which does not link [the manner of speaking] unnecessarily to the sex of the speaker" Two-Cultures theory , which has been first proposed by Maltz and Borker, explains differences in conversational style by arguing that men and women are part of different sub-culture s and therefore conversation between women and men can be likened to interethnic communication ([1982] 1998: 421). There do not seem to be conclusive arguments to favour either approach. adjacency pair is an example of conversational turn-taking. An adjacency pair is composed of two utterances by two speakers, one after the other. The speaking of the first utterance (the first- pair part, or the first turn) provokes a responding utterance (the second-pair part, or the second turn). For example, a question such as " What's your name? " requires the addressee to provide an answer in the following turn, thus completing the adjacency pair. A satisfactory response could be " I'm James ". To provide an irrelevant response, or to fail to complete the pair, is noticed as a breach of conversational maxim . A reply like " I'm allergic to shellfish " would not satisfy the adjacency pair, as it violates Grice's conversational maxim of relevance Code-switching is a linguistics term denoting the concurrent use of more than one language , or language variety , in conversation. Multilinguals , people who speak more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Thus, code- switching is the syntactically and phonologically appropriate use of more than one linguistic variety. conduit metaphor, which holds that ideas can be expressed and interpreted through language. It incorporates these three interconnected metaphors: Concepts, thoughts, feelings, meanings, sense and ideas are objects. Words, sentences, and so on are containers (with an inside and an outside) for these objects. Finally, communication is the act of sending and receiving these containers (through a conduit). Those who speak and expect their meaning to be understood as it was intended are thinking of language as a conduit, perhaps a more faithful one than it truly is: miscommunications and misunderstandings can be attributed to this assumption....
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This note was uploaded on 08/18/2010 for the course ANTHRO 33 taught by Professor Wertheim during the Summer '08 term at UCLA.

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Midterm Study Guide - Big Six: Hierarchy: Hierarchy within...

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