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Unformatted text preview: 1 Newton's Laws and Kinematics Collection edited by: Chris Duston Content authors: OpenStax University Physics and OpenStax Based on: University Physics Volume 1 < ;. Online: < ; This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by Chris Duston. Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 Collection structure revised: 2018/08/28 PDF Generated: 2019/11/06 13:46:09 For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see the "Attributions" section at the end of the collection. 2 This OpenStax book is available for free at Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1: Newton's Laws of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Newton's First Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Newton's Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Mass and Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Newton’s Third Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Common Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: One Dimensional Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity . . . . 2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration . . . . . . 2.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Free Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration Chapter 3: Two Dimensional Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Acceleration Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions . . . . Chapter 4: Dynamics - Motion from Forces . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . 4.2 Drag Force and Terminal Speed . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5: Frictional Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6: Static Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7: Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Centripetal Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8: Work and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9: Rotational Kinematics and Dynamics . . . . . 9.1 Rotational Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration . . . . 9.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities . . . . 9.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy . . 9.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Work and Power for Rotational Motion . . . . . . . . Chapter 10: Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . 10.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy . . 10.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion . . . . . . . . . 10.6 Tidal Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 11: Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 7 . 8 13 16 27 29 36 47 65 66 70 76 84 96 102 117 118 126 131 142 157 157 173 193 193 211 212 220 233 239 253 254 261 277 278 288 291 295 309 309 321 330 337 346 357 375 376 381 388 393 400 407 412 431 432 442 11.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion 11.4 Pendulums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Damped Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6 Forced Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 12: Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Traveling Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Mathematics of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Energy and Power of a Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Interference of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 Standing Waves and Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13: Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1 Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 Sound Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave . . . . . . . . 13.5 Sources of Musical Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 The Doppler Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.8 Shock Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This OpenStax book is available for free at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 452 459 462 477 478 484 493 496 501 510 535 536 538 547 555 563 568 570 577 Review Materials Chapter 14: Units and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Units and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Unit Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations . . . . . . . . . 14.6 Significant Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.7 Solving Problems in Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15: Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1 Scalars and Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector 15.3 Algebra of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 Products of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 16: Linear Momentum and Collisions . . . . . . . 16.1 Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2 Impulse and Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . 16.4 Types of Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions . . . . . . . . . 16.6 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7 Rocket Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 17: Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1 Rolling Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . 17.4 Precession of a Gyroscope . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 18: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy 18.1 Potential Energy of a System . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces . . . 18.3 Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability . . . . . . 18.5 Sources of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A: Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix B: Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix C: Fundamental Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix D: Astronomical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix E: Mathematical Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix F: Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix G: The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 596 602 608 610 613 616 620 631 632 645 656 665 693 694 696 710 721 729 736 751 769 770 778 788 795 811 812 820 823 829 833 847 851 855 857 859 863 865 919 This OpenStax book is available for free at Preface 1 PREFACE Welcome to University Physics, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost. About OpenStax OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012 and our library has since scaled to over 25 books used by hundreds of thousands of students across the globe. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being used in college courses throughout the country. The OpenStax mission is made possible through the generous support of philanthropic foundations. Through these partnerships and with the help of additional low-cost resources from our OpenStax partners, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed. About OpenStax's resources Customization University Physics is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors. Because our books are openly licensed, you are free to use the entire book or pick and choose the sections that are most relevant to the needs of your course. Feel free to remix the content by assigning your students certain chapters and sections in your syllabus in the order that you prefer. You can even provide a direct link in your syllabus to the sections in the web view of your book. Instructors also have the option of creating a customized version of their OpenStax book. The custom version can be made available to students in low-cost print or digital form through their campus bookstore. Visit your book page on OpenStax.org for more information. Errata All OpenStax textbooks undergo a rigorous review process. However, like any professional-grade textbook, errors sometimes occur. Since our books are web based, we can make updates periodically when deemed pedagogically necessary. If you have a correction to suggest, submit it through the link on your book page on OpenStax.org. Subject matter experts review all errata suggestions. OpenStax is committed to remaining transparent about all updates, so you will also find a list of past errata changes on your book page on OpenStax.org. Format You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through OpenStax.org, and for a low cost in print. About University Physics University Physics is designed for the two- or three-semester calculus-based physics course. The text has been developed to meet the scope and sequence of most university physics courses and provides a foundation for a career in mathematics, science, or engineering. The book provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of physics and understand how those concepts apply to their lives and to the world around them. Due to the comprehensive nature of the material, we are offering the book in three volumes for flexibility and efficiency. Coverage and scope Our University Physics textbook adheres to the scope and sequence of most two- and three-semester physics courses nationwide. We have worked to make physics interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigor inherent in the subject. With this objective in mind, the content of this textbook has been developed and arranged to provide a logical progression from fundamental to more advanced concepts, building upon what students have already learned and emphasizing connections between topics and between theory and applications. The goal of each section is to enable students not just to recognize concepts, but to work with them in ways that will be useful in later courses and future careers. The organization and pedagogical features were developed and vetted with feedback from science educators dedicated to the project. 2 Preface VOLUME I Unit 1: Mechanics Chapter 1: Units and Measurement Chapter 2: Vectors Chapter 3: Motion Along a Straight Line Chapter 4: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions Chapter 5: Newton’s Laws of Motion Chapter 6: Applications of Newton’s Laws Chapter 7: Work and Kinetic Energy Chapter 8: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Chapter 9: Linear Momentum and Collisions Chapter 10: Fixed-Axis Rotation Chapter 11: Angular Momentum Chapter 12: Static Equilibrium and Elasticity Chapter 13: Gravitation Chapter 14: Fluid Mechanics Unit 2: Waves and Acoustics Chapter 15: Oscillations Chapter 16: Waves Chapter 17: Sound VOLUME II Unit 1: Thermodynamics Chapter 1: Temperature and Heat Chapter 2: The Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 3: The First Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 4: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism Chapter 5: Electric Charges and Fields Chapter 6: Gauss’s Law Chapter 7: Electric Potential Chapter 8: Capacitance Chapter 9: Current and Resistance Chapter 10: Direct-Current Circuits Chapter 11: Magnetic Forces and Fields Chapter 12: Sources of Magnetic Fields Chapter 13: Electromagnetic Induction Chapter 14: Inductance Chapter 15: Alternating-Current Circuits Chapter 16: Electromagnetic Waves VOLUME III Unit 1: Optics Chapter 1: The Nature of Light This OpenStax book is available for free at Preface 3 Chapter 2: Geometric Optics and Image Formation Chapter 3: Interference Chapter 4: Diffraction Unit 2: Modern Physics Chapter 5: Relativity Chapter 6: Photons and Matter Waves Chapter 7: Quantum Mechanics Chapter 8: Atomic Structure Chapter 9: Condensed Matter Physics Chapter 10: Nuclear Physics Chapter 11: Particle Physics and Cosmology Pedagogical foundation Throughout University Physics you will find derivations of concepts that present classical ideas and techniques, as well as modern applications and methods. Most chapters start with observations or experiments that place the material in a context of physical experience. Presentations and explanations rely on years of classroom experience on the part of longtime physics professors, striving for a balance of clarity and rigor that has proven successful with their students. Throughout the text, links enable students to review earlier material and then return to the present discussion, reinforcing connections between topics. Key historical figures and experiments are discussed in the main text (rather than in boxes or sidebars), maintaining a focus on the development of physical intuition. Key ideas, definitions, and equations are highlighted in the text and listed in summary form at the end of each chapter. Examples and chapter-opening images often include contemporary applications from daily life or modern science and engineering that students can relate to, from smart phones to the internet to GPS devices. Assessments that reinforce key concepts In-chapter Examples generally follow a three-part format of Strategy, Solution, and Significance to emphasize how to approach a problem, how to work with the equations, and how to check and generalize the result. Examples are often followed by Check Your Understanding questions and answers to help reinforce for students the important ideas of the examp...
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