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Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2009 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board
The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT® and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2009 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central® is the official online home for AP teachers: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Describe how a plasmid can be genetically modified to include a piece of foreign DNA that alters the phenotype of bacterial cells transformed with the modified plasmid. Describe a procedure to determine which bacterial cells have been successfully transformed. Describe plasmid modification (8 points maximum): Topic Plasmid vector Cut (cleave) DNAs Description (1 point each) Describes plasmid as small circular DNA Use of restriction endonucleases (RE) Plasmid and inserted DNA must have same RE cut ends or be cut by same RE Ends of DNA should be sticky, wanting to bond with matching ends Generate ends for attachment using endonucleases For joining of sticky ends Correct orientation of insertion to ensure expression DNA cut should be a complete sequence of gene Attach piece with a promoter or insert next to promoter Gene used to identify insertion of desired DNA Insert DNA with a gene that produces a new phenotype Inserted to help identify the DNA insertion (e.g., antibiotic resistance) Ensure proper start codon Calcium chloride and heat shock, electroporation to make competent Blunt cuts; T4 ligase; add terminal transferase to add poly (A) to 3’ end Sticky ends Ligase Orientation Gene of interest Reporter gene Selective marker AUG in place Uptake of plasmid Alternative procedures Describe plasmid uptake and how transformation is determined (6 points maximum): Topic Transformation Isolation Antibiotic Gel electrophoresis Retrieval Protein Tag Description (1 point each) Defined process of transformation of a plasmid Isolate plasmids/agar plate that grows only colonies of resistance gene Use of antibiotic resistance/sensitivity genes Detailed description of antibiotic resistance lab procedure Isolate plasmid using electrophoresis Detailed description of gel electrophoresis for isolation Retrieve altered plasmid Identification of new protein, possible glowing marker protein Detailed description of retrieval or protein method Fluorescent marker, etc. Detailed description of alternate method © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Discuss the patterns of sexual reproduction in plants. Compare and contrast reproduction in nonvascular plants with that in flowering plants. Include the following topics in your discussion: (a) alternation of generations (b) mechanisms that bring female and male gametes together (c) mechanisms that disperse offspring to new locations Four points per part. Student must write about all three parts for full credit. Within each part it is possible to get points for comparing and contrasting. Also, specific points are available from details provided about nonvascular and flowering plants. Discuss the patterns of sexual reproduction in plants (4 points maximum): (a) Alternation of generations (4 points maximum): Topic Alternating generations Gametophyte Description (1 point each) Haploid stage and diploid stage. Haploid-producing gametes. Dominant in nonvascular plants. Double fertilization in flowering plants. Gametangia; archegonia and antheridia in nonvascular plants. Diploid-producing spores. Heterosporous in flowering plants. Flowering plants produce seeds; nonvascular plants do not. Flowering plants produce flower structures. Sporangia (megasporangia and microsporangia). Dominant in flowering plants. Sporophyte (b) Mechanisms that bring female and male gametes together (4 points maximum): Nonvascular Plants (1 point each) Aquatic—requires water for motile sperm Flowering Plants (1 point each) Terrestrial—pollination by wind, water, or animal Micropyle in ovule for pollen tube to enter Pollen tube to carry sperm nuclei Self- or cross-pollination Gametophytes; no antheridia or archegonia Ovules produce female gametophytes/gametes Pollen: male gametophyte that produces gametes Antheridia produce sperm Archegonia produce egg © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Question 2 (continued)
(c) Mechanisms that disperse offspring to new locations (4 points maximum): Nonvascular Plants (1 point each) Dispersal of spores by wind or Dispersal of spores in water Flowering Plants (1 point each) Dispersal through seeds Carried by wind, water, or animal Detailed animal description: fur, etc. Detailed wind description: winged seeds, etc. Protection of seeds/seeds protect young sporophytes Fruits used to lure animals © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Water is essential to all living things. (a) Discuss THREE properties of water. (b) Explain each of the following in terms of the properties of water. You are not limited to the three properties discussed in part (a): • • • the role of water as a medium for the metabolic processes of cells the ability of water to moderate temperature within living organisms and in organisms’ environments the movement of water from the roots to the leaves of plants (a) Discuss THREE properties of water (6 points maximum): Name of property and correct description (2 points). Points MUST provide both property and description. Property Polarity of water Specific heat/high heat capacity High heat of vaporization Adhesion Cohesion Three states of matter and Description (2 points jointly) Polar covalent bonds created by unequal sharing of electrons between O and H within the molecule Heat absorption without temperature change Water molecules absorb energy as it changes state/breaking of bonds by absorbing energy Attraction to other molecules that are polar or have charge Attraction to other water molecules due to polar nature of water/ surface tension Ice–liquid–gas (vapor) Kinetic energy differences Expands at 4°C to become less dense Moves aside nonpolar substances Repels hydrophobic material (b) Explain each of the following in terms of water properties (6 points maximum; 2 points for each part). To earn 10 points, students must get at least 1 application point for each area. Water’s role as a medium for the metabolic processes of cells (2 points maximum): • Diffusion—allows for movement of materials through an aqueous solution down the concentration gradient • Osmosis—movement of water across membranes due to water potential differences (down the gradient) • Solvent—dissociation/ionization of materials • Buffer—explanation of role water plays in formation of bicarbonate ion © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Question 3 (continued)
Water’s ability to moderate temperature within living organisms/environments (2 points maximum): • Specific heat—moderates climates, maintains stable temperature in cells, constant internal environment • High heat of vaporization—perspiration cooling, evaporative cooling • Ice forming and acting as insulator for lakes, keeping water in liquid state Water from the roots to the leaves of plants (2 points maximum): • Transpiration—moving water away from leaves due to water potential differences/evaporation through stomata • Capillary action of water due to adhesion and cohesion • Root pressure—driven by osmosis/movement of water into roots • Negative pressure potential—caused by surface tension of water as it is pulled up xylem © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Many organisms require a continuing source of oxygen for respiration. Discuss important structural and physiological adaptations for oxygen uptake in THREE of the following: • • • • a paramecium a tree a fish a mammal Each structural and physiological adaptation earns 1 point. Student must mention at least one structural and one physiological area to earn 10 points. Only the first three organisms mentioned earn points. • Paramecium (4 points maximum): Structural (1 point each) Membrane surface area/volume small Wet habitat Membrane permeable to oxygen • Tree (4 points maximum): Structural (1 point each) Stomata/guard cells Large wet internal surface area in mesophyll Lenticels Pneumatophores Root hairs Epidermis permeable to oxygen Physiological (1 point each) Stomatal regulation Surface for gas exchange Cohesion, transport Pressure flow/source to sink Physiological (1 point each) Utilizes diffusion Cytoplasmic streaming Ventilation of surface with cilia Photosynthesis production of oxygen • Fish (4 points maximum): Structural (1 point each) Gills Operculum Vascularization/gill capillaries Hemoglobin Lungfish lungs Physiological (1 point each) Countercurrent exchange Operculum movement/gill slit movement Ram ventilation (swimming) Increase surface area/diffusion Blood flow—heart pumping Iron molecules holding oxygen © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Question 4 (continued)
• Mammal (4 points maximum): Structural (1 point each) Lungs Vascularization of alveoli Hemoglobin/RBC Diaphragm/ventilation (breathing) mechanisms Four-chambered heart Physiological (1 point each) Homeostatic adjustments via medulla Capillaries increase surface area/diffusion Iron molecules holding oxygen Ventilation physiology Separate pulmonary and systemic blood Blood flow—heart pumping © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2010 for the course BIOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Mancino during the Spring '10 term at Abant İzzet Baysal University.
- Spring '10