2010 - AP® Biology 2010 Free-Response Questions The...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Biology 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid and enrollment. Among its widely recognized programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®), SpringBoard® and ACCUPLACER®. The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2010 The College Board. College Board, ACCUPLACER, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, SpringBoard and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service is a trademark owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2010 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS BIOLOGY SECTION II Time— 1 hour and 30 minutes Directions: Answer all questions. Answers must be in essay form. Outline form is not acceptable. Labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice. It is important that you read each question completely before you begin to write. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in the pink booklet. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme α-amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of α-amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. Time (minutes) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Maltose Concentration (μM) 0 5.1 8.6 10.4 11.1 11.2 11.5 (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of α-amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 2010 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 3. A new species of fly was discovered on an island in the South Pacific. Several different crosses were performed, each using 100 females and 100 males. The phenotypes of the parents and the resulting offspring were recorded. Cross I: True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. F2 Phenotype Bronze eyes Red eyes Male 3,720 1,260 Female 3,800 1,320 Cross II: True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. F2 Phenotype Normal wings Stunted wings Male 1,160 3,600 Female 1,320 3,820 Cross III: True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normalwinged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with truebreeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Phenotype Bronze eyes, stunted wings Bronze eyes, normal wings Red eyes, stunted wings Red eyes, normal wings Male 2,360 220 260 2,240 Female 2,220 300 220 2,180 (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 2010 AP® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. END OF EXAM © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -4- ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/19/2010 for the course BIOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Mancino during the Spring '10 term at Abant İzzet Baysal University.

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