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Review Session

Review Session - The exam is two hours MORE TIME Still need...

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The exam is two hours. MORE TIME! Still need to really focus on time management. Circle both if necessary and explain why you think both are solid. Partial credit rewarded for a valid argument. 4 identiifications/24 multiple choice questions Let’s start with GroupThink What is special about GroupThink? The group is typically very cohensive and members of the group have a fear of being ostracized. Some important decisions can be given to groups. –Security decisions, national security council, council of economic advisors, juries in the court of law. We delegate these decisions to a group so that one individual is not making a choice. Groups tend to conform to the norms of the group. The group tries to pressure the outsiders to conform. Or you kick them out/isolate them. Colin Powell on Iraq became isolated. The story about how GroupThink was discovered. Bay of Pigs Fiasco in 1960 was when a CIA-lead operation trained exiles to overthrow Castro. They all land on the beach and completely fail. 1,200 of them die. Huge disaster, major embarrassment. President Kennedy calls in Irving Janis and says “tell us what went wrong.” He looks at how they made their decisions and they all say “well I sort of thought that might have been a bad idea but I didn’t say anything about it.” “Groupthink refers to a deterioration of moral and mental testing when pressured by a group” Groupthink causes six deficiencies in decision-making. Some of these include discussion limited to two alternatives, failure to reexamine favored course of action, negligence of courses of action initially seen as unsatisfactory, don’t seek out experts, selection bias of information, don’t focus on contingency plan or plan B…what happens if. These are why you get bad decisions and FIASCOS. Group responsible for making decision on Cuban Missile Crisis does not suffer from Groupthink. Kennedy does things differently. What does he do differently? Self-appointed mind guards…someone that’s going to say “What about this plan?”-Devil’s advocates. JFK refrains from stating his preferences. He did not go into the meetings saying “this is what I want to do.” He waited until the end to state his preferences. They had a lot of contingency plans. Meeting agenda were removed…people were able to think through everything in its entirety. They brought in outsiders. No pressure for outsiders to conform. President Obama is very concerned with avoiding groupthink. He wants to create a Team of Rivals. Lincoln did this. Bush appointed people that were loyal to him. Obama wants people to stand up and say “that is a bad idea.” By preventing groupthink you can prevent big fiascos like the Bay of Pigs.
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