Anthropology Exam 1

Anthropology Exam 1 - Anthropology Exam 1: Study Guide Four...

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Anthropology Exam 1: Study Guide Four Fields of Anthropology - Biological Anthropology (or physical anthropology): the study of humans as biological organisms, including their evolution and contemporary variation - Archaeology (or prehistory): the study of past human cultures through their material remains - Linguistic Anthropology: the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change - Cultural Anthropology (or social anthropology): the study of living peoples and their cultures, including variations and change. Culture refers to peoples learned and shared behaviors and beliefs o Universal aspects of culture: eating, drinking, sleeping and eliminating - Applied Anthropology: the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals Cultural Anthropology: study of the lifeways of the world’s living people - Making a living - Reproduction - Health - Marriage and family - Social groups and politics - Art, language, religion… and more! Specific Cultures - Yanomami/Napoleon Cagnon o Napoleon Chagnon: Cultural anthropologist (1960s and 1970s) Professor at Northwestern University Wanted to build a complete ethnographic understanding of the Yanomami He had to assimilate into the Yanomami culture so he brought them gifts to be accepted in (he actually traded them, weapons) o Yanomami: Ocamo River in Venezula (where they live) Settlement patterns: people do not live randomly, men cannot go near their mother-in-laws, they generally live with kin, brothers and their families live together in one section of the village. Villages grow and divide into new lands, interrelated villages Making a living: hunting and gathering (foraging) Food and diet: they do a lot of drugs! Health: believed in ritual healing, thought medicine was bull shit, did not believe in medicinal drugs Marriage and family relationships: kinship is the basis of social organization, it is taboo to use the names of close kin or dead relatives Gender roles and status: boys are taught at a young age to intimidate little girls (by running at them with weapons)
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Political leadership: one leader Religion, ritual, beliefs about the sacred: the only way to be sent to hell is through greed, myths are important and when they are told certain aspects MUST be included Hequeta spirits: can cause or cure sickness In Yanomami culture, 30% of adult male deaths are associated with warfare - Masai/Kenya and Tanzania o Film (Masai Women) Animal herders: despise hunting and do not grow crops of any kind Animals only form of wealth (love their cows, each has a name and compose songs in praise of their herds) Use everything produced by their animals o Eat their meat, drink their milk, use cow dung to make their homes, use their skins to make clothing Masai conception of wealth is different, to a Masai women and children are wealth in themselves (rights over people over rights of
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Anthropology Exam 1 - Anthropology Exam 1: Study Guide Four...

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