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Anthropology Study Guide exam 2

Anthropology Study Guide exam 2 - Anthropology Study Guide...

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Anthropology Study Guide: Exam 2 - Psychological Anthropology o Cross-cultural study of personality Personality: an individual’s patterned and characteristic way of behaving, thinking and feeling Identity: a person’s sense of self and relations with others Ethnopsychology: the study of how various cultures define and create personality, identity, and mental health o Human growth and development o Abnormal psychology - Freud—“universals” and “importance of unconscious” - Culture and personality school: Margaret Mead o Culture and Personality School: an intellectual movement that began in the US in the 1930s and persisted through the 1970s Influenced by Freudian theories: The importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality and identity The symbolic analysis of people’s dreams, words and stories Rejected universalism Historical particularism (Boaz) Believed that each culture has a unique history that provides a unique context for shaping personality types and behavior within that culture Studies focused on revealing cross-cultural differences in child- rearing practices, personality types, and key symbols o Child rearing: 1930s—Margaret Mead Sepik River area of northern Papua New Guinea Studied gender in three different groups Found striking differences between male and female personalities and behavior in each group o Arapesh: both men and women had nurturant and gentle personalities, both valued parental roles and both participated equally in child care All males and females behaved stereotypically like “females” in western cultures o Mundugumor: both males and females responded to the Western stereotype of “male” behavior Adults were assertive, aggressive, loud, and fierce Both mothers and fathers treated children with indifference o Tchambuli: men fussed about looks, gossiped with
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each other most of the day, and did little productive work; women were competent and responsible, providing most of the family with food through fishing and gardening, women played a dominant role in the family and their personalities reflected this position Since all three groups share similar biological traits, her findings indicated that gender is culturally defined and constructed rather than being inborn - Cultural configuration/National Character Study o Ruth Benedict: a student of Mead’s and a leading figure of the Culture and Personality School Argued that the particular personality types characterize whole cultures and even entire countries Cultures are formed through the unconscious selection of a few cultural traits from a “vast arc” of potential traits Cultural configuration: a cohesive pattern of beliefs and behaviors shared by everyone in the culture o NW Coast: Dionysian culture, excessive Labeled the Kwakwaka’wakw “Dionysian” after the Greek god of revelry and excess (and drinking wine) Chose this term because of their potlatches, high levels of
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