1) A federal a) Political system has authority shared among multiple levels of government. i) Canada, Switzerland, Germany, India are among examples. 2) Unitary a) Concentrates power at federal level. i) Relationship between state governments and local governments in US is one example. ii) Although local governments have power, they are really functioning at discretion of state government. iii) Parliamentary systems are another example. (1) Most countries have Unitary government. 3) Supreme Court Cases Facilitating Nationalization a) McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 i) Maryland tried to implement a tax on the United States (national bank) (1) Head Officer of Bank, McCulloch, sues. The case goes to Supreme Court, and John Marshall the Justice, rules in favor of McCulloch. Marshall says that allowing states to tax national institutions undermines supremacy clause of constitution. Marshall goes on to note, that the national government has powers that are implied by the constitution. This opens
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