04LargeMolecules2-2

04LargeMolecules2-2 - Lecture 4 Large Molecules 2: Nucleic...

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Lecture 4 Large Molecules 2: Nucleic Acids and Lipids
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Roles for nucleic acids and nucleotides (monomers) in organisms include: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) contains the information to make our genes DNA is transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is translated into proteins Nucleotides have additional functions as signaling molecules and energy transducers Nucleic Acids
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pentose sugar
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Energy-rich bonds: Breaking them releases energy
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Erwin Chargaff discovered the base pairing rules
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Rosalind Franklin collected the X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA
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James Watson and Francis Crick solved the double-helical structure of DNA
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The phosphate of the second nucleotide condenses with the –OH of the 3’ carbon of the first nucleotide . 5’ 3’ 5’ OH OH 3’
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Successive nucleotides add to the 3’ end of the polymer + H 2 O 5’ 3’ Free hydroxyl group Free phosphate group OH Polymerization occurs in 5’ to 3’ direction phosphodiester linkage
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5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ antiparallel orientation
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Usually single-stranded Usually double-stranded Main function of RNA: intermediate between DNA and protein (mRNA)
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04LargeMolecules2-2 - Lecture 4 Large Molecules 2: Nucleic...

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