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08cells2-1 - Lecture 8 Cells 2 Endosymbiotic organelles the...

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Lecture 8 Cells 2: Endosymbiotic organelles, the cytoskeleton and cell junctions
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Mitochondria have an outer plasma membrane and a highly folded inner membrane. Folds of the inner membrane give rise to the cristae , which contain large protein molecules used in cellular respiration (ATP production). The region enclosed by the inner membrane is called the mitochondrial matrix (contains many enzymes, e.g. for citric acid cycle). Endosymbiotic organelles
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A Mitochondrion Converts Energy from Fuel Molecules into ATP (Part 1)
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A Mitochondrion Converts Energy from Fuel Molecules into ATP (Part 2) Citric acid cycle respiration DNA, RNA, ribosomes
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The Chloroplast is one member of the Plastid family of organelles. Chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis, other plastids store starch or pigments.
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Chloroplasts are surrounded by two membranes, and have an internal membrane system. The internal membranes are arranged as thylakoids (cristae in mitochondria) . These membranes contain chlorophyll and ATP synthase. Thylakoids are derived from the inner membrane. In prokaryotes the photosynthetic system also sits in the plasma membrane. The fluid in which the thylakoids are suspended is called the stroma (matrix in mitochondria).
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The Chloroplast: The Organelle That Feeds the World DNA, RNA, ribosomes photosynthesis Carbon fixation yielding sugars, amino acids, all fatty acids
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Endosymbiont theory Evidence: Double membrane (likely taken up by endocytosis) Own genome Own ribosomes more similar to Eubacteria Genes more similar to
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