Final Exam study notes - Critical Thinking Final Exam study...

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Final Exam study notes Inductive Arguments Support, but cannot prove their conclusions relatively strong or weak depending on the premises Strength and Probability Strength is not connected to probability An argument can be strong, while the conclusion has a low probability o Kind I: inductive/statistical Syllogisms Argues from general to specific Common Form Most x’s are y’s, this is an x, so probably this is a y. o Kind II: Inductive Generalizations Argues from specific to general Common Form P% of observed x’s are y’s, so p% of all x’s are y’s o Sample – observed x’s o Target Population – all x’s o Feature – property of being y o Sample size - # observed Evaluation o Identify target population Related Factors – factor that the presence or absence is important o Sample Representative – sample perfectly represents target population Random – All people in target population have equal opportunity to be included in sample Biased – not random o Kind III: Inductive Analogical Arguments Common Form X and Y both have properties p, q, r, etc., X has feature F, so Y has
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Final Exam study notes - Critical Thinking Final Exam study...

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