CH10 Outline and Vocabulary

CH10 Outline and Vocabulary - % % % Chapter 10:...

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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Vocabulary: Chapter 10.1 Vocabulary: Photosynthesis: The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes. Autotrophs: An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones. Heterotrophs: An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them. Chlorophyll: A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants and algae and in the membranes of certain prokaryotes. Chlorophyll a participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy. Mesophyll: The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis. Stomata: A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant. Stroma: Within the chloroplast, the dense fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. Thylakoids: A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast. Thylakoids exist in an interconnected system in the chloroplast and contain the molecular “machinery” used to convert light energy to chemical energy. Light Reactions: The first of two major stages in photosynthesis (preceding the Calvin cycle). These reactions, which occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast or on membranes of certain prokaryotes, convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process. Calvin Cycle: The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
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NADP + : Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, An electron acceptor that, as NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions. Photophosphorylation: The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton- motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or the membrane of certain prokaryotes during the light reactions of photosynthesis. Carbon Fixation: The initial incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote). Chapter 10.2 Vocabulary:
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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CH10 Outline and Vocabulary - % % % Chapter 10:...

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