Biology notes Exam 2

Biology notes Exam 2 - 1 Hypertonic a Lower water potential...

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1. Hypertonic a. Lower water potential b. More solutes dissolved c. Hypertonic solutions will tend to gain water 2. Hypotonic a. Higher water potential b. Fewer solutes dissolved c. Hypotonic solutions will tend to lose water 3. Isotonic a. Equivalent water potential b. Equivalent number of solutes dissolved c. No net movement of water 4. Marine Invertebrates a. Isotonic with seawater b. Accumulate free amino acids to match the tonicity of seawater 5. Marine Elasmobranch Fishes a. Sharks and rays b. Isotonic with seawater c. Accumulate up to 0.5 M urea in their tissues 6. Freshwater bony fish (teleost fish) a. Hypertonic to freshwater 7. Marine bony fish (teleost fish) a. Hypotonic to seawater
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8. How do cells regulate metabolism? How do cells organize and control the chemical reactions that support life? 9. Metabolic transformations a. Chemical reactions b. Small steps c. Controlled processes d. Each step controlled by a protein catalyst i. Enzymes 10. Biological Chemical Reactions a. Regulated by protein catalysts – enzymes b. Synthesis of energy carrier molecules to store energy, transport it from place to place, regulate its flow c. Couple reactions together so that unfavorable reactions can occur at the expense of reactions that release energy 11. Enzymes a. Protein catalysts b. Not used up c. Specific reactions require specific enzymes d. Enzymes lower activation energy barrier e. Enzymes speed up reaction 10^8 – 10^20 times faster f. Do not reverse an energetically unfavorable reaction 12.Thermodynamics a. Study of the energy relationships of a system
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13. Energy a. Two types i. Potential ii. Kinetic 14. First law of thermodynamics a. Within any closed system the total amount of energy remains constant 15. Second law a. All spontaneous processes result in an increase in randomness and disorder in the universe b. And consequently in a loss of localized concentrations of energy c. Entropy increasing d. You must define “the system” e. A closed system f. The earth is not a closed system i. Input of energy from the sun 16. Chemical reactions a. Endergonic (Endothermic)—require net input of energy (heat) to proceed
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Biology notes Exam 2 - 1 Hypertonic a Lower water potential...

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