Final Exam Study Guide222

Final Exam Study Guide222 - Final Exam Study Guide Tuesday...

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Final Exam Study Guide Tuesday May 8 at 12:30 PM in Campbell Auditorium Bring your ID and pencil 81 questions worth 2 points each (Note that the highest score in SB will be 108% - not 162) Biological molecules – 3 questions Carbohydrate structure and function Lipid structure - saturated – solid at room temp; saturated with H no adjacent C bonding -unsaturated – liquid at room temp; double bond between adjacent C, lowers melting pt. Mitosis and Meiosis – 4 questions Number of chromosomes Amount of DNA ~See review sheet and work sheet on Cell Division Moodle Genetics – 5 questions Problem solving: ABO and Rh blood groups X-linkage ~See the relevant problems in Genetics Problems on Moodle DNA synthesis – 5 questions Enzymes involved in DNA replication - Pay attention to Table16. 1 and Figure 16.16 1
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Base pairing (Fig. 16.7 and 16.8) Figure 16. 7 The double helix Figure 16.8 Base pairing in DNA The two strands of DNA are antiparallel Base Pairing Suggests a model for DNA replication o How do you make identical copies? AZT (from your lecture notes) Treatment of HIV/AIDS with AZT Block the production of viral DNA Thymidine and Azido Thymidine AZT 3 azido (N3) group instead of 3 OH group When AZT is added to growing viral DNA strand the azido group stops the addition of further nucleotides The azido group 2
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Human DNA does not incorporate AZT. Why? Human DNA does not incorpate AZT Because proof reading ability of DNA polymerase compared to the viral reverse transciptase See the worksheet Molecular Genetics on Blackboard under Course Documents Transcription and translation – 11 questions Components of RNA synthesis "The Central Dogma" DNA is transcribed into mRNA mRNA is transcribed into proteins (amino acids) with the ribosome. o Exceptions: reverse transcriptase (H. Temin and D Baltimore) RNA Synthesis RNA polymerase is used Formed on the template strand of DNA The RNA is anti-parallel to the DNA RNA polymer grows in the 5' to 3' direction. RNA Processing in Eukaryotes Intron (intervening sequence) is the non-coding sequence and is removed from the mature mRNA Exon (expressed sequence) codes for a sequence of amino acids Exons The sequence that codes for a "protein domain" - what is a protein domain? Protein domains Proteins generally have modular architectures Functional units of the protein E.g. substrate binding site, coenzyme binding site RNA Processing Addition of a 5' GTP cap Addition of a poly-A tail Removal of introns (intervening sequences) Types and functions of RNA Ribonucleic Acid Ribosomal RNA Transfer RNA Messenger RNA RNA Differs from DNA in having a hydroxyl group (-OH) in the 2’ position Differs from DNA in having uracil(U) instead of Thymine(T) Base pairing rules: A-U, T-A, G-C, C-G rRNA Serves as the scaffolding for the proteins of the ribosome 3
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Fig 17.16 The anatomy of a functioning ribosome tRNA
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