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Study guide test 3

Study guide test 3 - Examination 3 Learning Objectives The...

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Examination 3 Learning Objectives The material in the textbook : Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. Focus on the material covered lecture. Cell Division - 9 questions Fig. 12.4, 12.5, 12.6 and 12.9 Fig. 13.7,13.8 and 13.9 Be sure you can complete the worksheet s on Cell Division. Review the material in the Cell Division Summary sheet. Telomerase- enzyme with a short sequence of RNA Centromeres - region in which sister chromatids are attached to one another in prosphase Kinetochores - strustyre of proteins and specidic section of chromosomal SNA at the centromere. Also the point of attachment for microtubules of the spindle Chromatids- one of a pair of duplicated chromosomes produced during the S phase of the cell cycl which are joined together at the centromere. Chromatids become visible during prophase and metaphase of mitosis or meiosis. Separate at anaphase and are then known as daughter chromoso Cell Cycle- consists of Interphase (Gap 1, S phase, Gap II) and Metaphase (mitosis,prophase, prometaohase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis) Interphase- generally about 90% of cells cycle. - Consist of: o Gap I: synthesis of a cell component s and increase in number of organelles o S phase: the synthesis (replication) of DNA and doubling genetic material, here the chromosomes consist of 2 chromatids o Gap II: 40 chromatids which here the centrioles relicate in animal cells the structure for cytoinesis is put into place Purpose of the different types of cell division Mitosis- purpose= growth, reproduction, repair Mitosis – Events in each phase 1.) Prophase: Nuclei disappear and the chromatin condenses. The meiotic spindle forms from microtubules in the cytoplasm. Centrosomes move away from each other. 2.) Prometaphase : the nuclear envelope (fragments) begin to break up. Microtubules of spindle invade the nuclear region and interact with the chromosome via the kinetechore (the structure of proteins and specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere. The point of attachment
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for microtubules of the spindle) mitotic spindle: formed from microtubules extending from the  twp chromosomes. As centrosomes move away from each other microtubules lengthen. 3.) Metaphase : Centrosomes are at opposite poles. Chromosomes are arranged at the equator (midpoint) of the spindle 4.) Anaphase : sister chromatids separate and move toward poles. Sister chromatids split and then consist of just one strand of DNA and both have a centromere 5.) Telophase: nuclear envelops reforms. Spindle breaks down into monomers. The nucleoli reform in the nucleus. Chromatids become less densly coiled and more thread-like.
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