BIOLOGY 1201

BIOLOGY 1201 - JANUARY20,2009 pHAreview Acids,BasesandSalts...

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JANUARY 20, 2009 Most aquatic animals are ectotherms because of water’s high heat capacity. Hard to be an endotherm and live in the water. pH – A review Acids, Bases and Salts o Acids produce H +  ions HCL   H+ and Cl- o Bases produce hydroxide ions NaOH   Na + and OH- pH = log [1/H+] = -log [H+] o Actually activitity of H+, rather than concentration pH Scale o Log base 10 o The difference between pH3 and pH4 is a 10-fold difference in the  concentration of H+ o pH of 7 is neutral o pH below 7 is acidic o pH above 7 is basic When you increase the H+, the pH decreases. Buffers Substances that maintain a constant pH. Solubility
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Solute Solvent- the medium that the solutes are dissolved into The similiarity of the solvent and solute determines the solubility of a  molecule. What determines solubility? o Like dissolves like o Like terms in polarity. Polar solute dissolve in polar solvents. Non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents. Cl is more electronegative than Na. The hydrogen bonding is responsivle for the unusual properties of water Biological Molecules Except for water, all are built on carbon skeleton. Water Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Functional Groups of Organic Compounds (Table 4.10a) Hydroxyl- Alcohols Carbonyl- Aldehydes (terminal carbon) and Ketones Carboxyl- Acid group
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Amino- Amines Sulfhydryl- Thiols (Last one?) Biological Molecules Large molecules constructed from smaller molecules. Polymers  constructed from  monomers . Mers = units o Mono = single o Poly = many Synthesis of Polymers o Condensation (dehydration) synthesis. o Proceeds with the removal of a water molecule o Breakdown of Polymer Hydrolysis Breaking the covalent bond of the polymer by the  addition of a water molecule. Why make large biological molecules from simple monomers? o
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BIOLOGY 1201 - JANUARY20,2009 pHAreview Acids,BasesandSalts...

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