BIOL 1201 CH9 Outline & Vocab

BIOL 1201 CH9 Outline & Vocab - % % % Chapter 9:...

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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration – Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Vocabulary: Chapter 9.1 Vocabulary: Anabolic Pathway: A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds. Catabolic Pathway: A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. Fermentation: A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid. Aerobic Respiration: A catabolic pathway that consumes oxygen (O2) and organic molecules, producing ATP. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms. Cellular Respiration: The catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP. Redox Reactions: A reduction/oxidation reaction in which the charge of one particle is reduced while the charge of another particle is increased. Reduction: The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction. Oxidation: The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction. Reducing Agent: The electron donor in a redox reaction. Oxidizing Agent: The electron acceptor in a redox reaction. NAD + /NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, A coenzyme that can accept An electron and acts as An electron carrier in the electron transport chain. Electron Transport Chain: A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
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Glycolysis: (“Sugar Splitting”) The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis occurs in almost all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration. Citric Acid Cycle: A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes; the second major stage in cellular respiration. Oxidative Phosphorylation: The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation: The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism. Chapter 9.3 Vocabulary: Acetyl CoA: Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme. Chapter 9.4 Vocabulary:
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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BIOL 1201 CH9 Outline & Vocab - % % % Chapter 9:...

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