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Test1notes - Biology 1201 1 Key Points about the Nature of...

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Biology 1201 January 13, 2009 1. Key Points about the Nature of Science: - Science originates in questions about the natural world. - Science uses observations and evidence to contract explanations about phenomena and testable hypothesis. o The more observations and evidence that support the hypothesis, the stronger is that hypothesis. - Scientists employ a variety of techniques to investigate the natural world. - Scientists make their explanations public through presentations and publications. - Scientists present their explanations and critique the explanations proposed by other scientists. 2. Definition of Science: - The use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena as well as the knowledge generated through this process. 3. The Range of Conditions for Life - Typical human body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius. - For any living thing the range for: o Temperature is: -2 to 132 degrees Celsius o Pressure is: 1 atm to 1100 atm - For any living thing at the average depth of the ocean o Temperature: 2 to 4 degrees Celsius o Pressure 380 atm 4. Organisms adapt to many environmental situations. - Antarctic Fish o Exotherms, surroundings set body temperature.
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o Live at -2 degrees Celsius - Penguins o Endotherms, metabolic rate sets body temperature. - Diving Seals o Can hold their breath for up to 90 minutes and can dive down to 1500m. - Deep Sea Fish o Adapt to the high pressure, cold temperatures, and the low food availability. - Bacteria: o Barophiles Thrive at pressures that kill surface bacteria. –“Pressure Loving” o Thermophiles Exist at high temperature. o Halophiles Live in inosmotic equilibrium with 3 molar salts. –“Salt Lovers” - Sharks o Live with ½ molar urea in their tissues o Urea: is a potent denaturant of proteins - Tuna o Raise the temperature of their muscles above ambient (as much as a 15 degree change) o Are endotherms in contrast to most fish being ectotherms. - Gutless Tubeworm o Thrive around deep sea thermal vents. - Mid-water Fish and Invertebrates
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o Organisms living in the water column achieve neutral buoyancy despite the high density. Chemistry Background - Elements o Pure substances that can’t be broken down to a simpler form by methods ordinarily available in a lab. o 92 naturally occurring elements, and 103 total. - Atom o The smallest unit of an element. o Consists of: Nucleus Proton (+1charge, 1 dalton mass) Neutron (0 Charge, 1 dalton mass) Electron (-1 charge, mass-less) - Atomic Number o The number of protons in the nucleus. - Atomic Mass o The sum of the protons and the neutrons. - Number of Protons = Number of Electrons - In an Ion, the number of protons is not equal to the number of electrons. -
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Test1notes - Biology 1201 1 Key Points about the Nature of...

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