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BIOL 1201 Notes

BIOL 1201 Notes - Biol 1201 355 Range of Condition for Life...

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Biol. 1201 1-20-06 355 Range of Condition for Life 1. cell/body temps from -2 degrees C to 130 degrees C 2. range of pressure: 1 atm to 1100 atm 3. condition at avg depth of ocean: 1. 2 degrees C to 4 degrees C 2. 380 atm of pressure 3. no sunlight Organisms confront many environments Antarctic fishes 1. live (have body temp) at -2 degrees C (below freezing temp of most vertebrates body fluids [ectotherm] Pagothenia Bernachii - ex. Antarctic fish Fish in the Ice Penguins - ex. Antarctic fish 2. keep WARM at similar temps [endotherm] Diving Seals - ex. Antarctic fish 1. hold breath for as long as 90 mins. 2. dive down to 1,500 meters for as long as 90 mins. Weddell seal - ex. Antarctic fish Deep-sea fishes 1. down to 7,000 meters 1. high pressure 2. cold temps 3. low food availability Rattails - ex. Predominant deep-sea fish Barophiles 1. bacteria - piezophiles (= barophiles) are “pressure loving” 1. thrive at pressure that kill surface bacteria Thermophiles 1. bacteria - thermophiles exist at temps up to 130 degrees C (grow at 121 degrees C) Hydrothermal vents Sharks 2. live with ½ molar urea in their tissues 3. urea is a potent denaturant of proteins Halophiles 1. halophilic bacteria live in osmotic equilibrium with 3 molar salt Halophilic archea in red brine of Owens Lake, Ca. Tuna 2. raise temp of their muscles above ambient (as much as 15 degrees C) Gutless tubeworms 3. thrive at deep-sea hydrothermal vents 4. no mouth, anus, or digestive track 5. can grow as big as 6 ft. Midwater fish and invertebrates 1. organisms living in the water column achieve neutral buoyancy despite the high density of biological materials 2. flabby bodies to make themselves less dense
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* Quiz questions: 1. 3 hrs. studying 2. Problem with blackboard? Call 578-0100 Chemistry background 1. elements - pure substances which cannot be broken down into 2 or more simpler substances by methods ordinarily available in the lab 1. 92 naturally occurring elements 2. 103 total 1. atom - smallest unit into which an element can be divided and retain its identity 1. nucleus 1. protons (+1 charge, 1 Dalton mass) 2. neutrons (neutral charge, 1 Dalton mass) 1. electrons (-1charge, essentially w/o mass) 2. atomic # = # of protons in nucleus 3. atomic mass = # (mass) of protons and neutrons in nucleus 4. # of electrons = # of protons (0 charge) 5. in an ion, # of electrons is NOT equal to # of protons (1 few electron = pos charge; 1 too many electrons = neg charge) 1. compound - substance which can be broken down into 2 or more elements 1. composition of given compound always same; it is definite and exact (water = 2 Hydrogen and 1 Oxygen) 2. when elements combine to form compounds, energy is either liberated or absorbed ; ex. Burning of gasoline 3. elements lose their characteristic properties when they combine to form compounds; the compound has a new set of characteristics 1. a compound is homogeneous (vs. a mixture) Table 2.1 - naturally occurring elements in human body - (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen [1 st 4 are most important], calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium) Fig. 2.4 - two simplified models of a helium (He) atom Fig. 2.7 - energy levels of atom’s electrons (electrons exist only at fixed levels of potential
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