BIOL 1201 test 4

BIOL 1201 test 4 - BIOL 1201 test 4 THE OCEAN...

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BIOL 1201 test 4 THE OCEAN Three-quarters of the planet is covered with water. The average depth of the ocean is 3800 meters. For every 10 meters depth increase, pressure increases 1 atm. Deep sea defined as the ocean below either 200 or 1000 meters Characterized by low temperature (approximately 2-4°C) and high hydrostatic pressure (up to 1,500 atm in the Mindanao Trench) No sunlight for photosynthesis (thus low food availability) Deep-sea species have characteristic depth distribution patterns which may be affected by pressure Pressure Acts on volume changes (of the entire solute-solvent system). Increased pressure inhibits a process that proceeds with a positive volume change and accelerates a process that proceeds with a negative volume change. Only if there is no net volume change is a process unaffected by pressure increases. Biochemical processes can be affected. Examples of what can be affected: rates of catalysis, binding of substrates, assembly of subunits. Membrane fluidity is also affected. High pressure acts like low temperature causing membranes to “freeze” Free vehicles (not attached to vessel), e.g., "monster" cameras Deep Submergence Vehicles e.g., Johnson Sea Link, Alvin Alvin Owned by the U.S. Navy and operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1966 recovered a hydrogen bomb lost in the Mediterranean Sea Explored the hydrothermal vents; surveyed the Titanic The Story of Alvin’s Lunch In the fall 1969 Alvin sank in 1540 m (water temperature 3°C) and was recovered 11 months later On board were lunches for pilot and 2 scientists o Bullion soup, bologna sandwich with mayonnaise, apples o Samples eaten – okay o Some put back in refrigerator at 3°C o Decayed in 3 weeks o Sparked interest in metabolic rates in the deep sea Bioluminescence
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Biologically produced light used for (among a number of roles) species recognition, camouflage and in some cases hunting Bioluminescence and color play role in "being invisible" Different wavelengths of light penetrate to different depths Rattails These fish belong to the family Macrouridae and are the predominant deep-sea teleost (boney) fish family. These fish also have the “common” name of grenadiers. Cell Communication Coordinate metabolic processes Receive messengers from both local and distant sources o Messenger is a chemical signal Respond to the signal through a change in the metabolic processes of the cell E.g. synthesis of proteins An extracellular chemical signal Is transduced into an intracellular response Communication occurs across the plasma membrane Extracellular signal is amplified within the cell via a signaling cascade Local signaling Paracrine o Diffusion of “first messengers” over short distance between cells Synaptic o Chemical signals from a nerve axon diffuse across a synapse to another nerve cell or a muscle cell Long distance signaling Hormonal signaling
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BIOL 1201 test 4 - BIOL 1201 test 4 THE OCEAN...

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