Biology notes Exam 3

Biology notes Exam 3 - Growth and repair: How do cells...

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Growth and repair: How do cells reproduce? Cells need to possess the genetic material characteristic of the organism o Genetic material is DNA o The “daughter” cells need the complete genetic complement Prokaryotes o Circular strands of DNA o Replicate the DNA and pass it on to the “daughter” cells o Divide by binary fission Eukaryotes o A problem o Genetic material is found in linear chromosomes Linear strands of DNA complexed with proteins Multiple chromosomes (ex. Humans 46) o How to insure that each daughter cell gets the complete set of chromosomes? Need a mechanism to allow each daughter cell to have a copy of each chromosome The solution o A process called mitosis Cell Division: Mitosis o Reproduction o Growth o Repair o Produce daughter cells that have identical genetic complements o Occurs in somatic cells Somatic cells o All body cells except cells which give rise to gametes
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Chromosomes o A complex of a linear strand of DNA and protein o Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number o Found in nucleus Chromatin o The long linear strand of DNA and complexed proteins Duplicated Chromosomes o Consists of two sister chromatids o Identical copies of DNA o Attached at a specialized region called the centromere Cell division for gamete formation o Sexual reproduction Fusion of gametes from parents to form a zygote Greater diversity of offspring than asexual reproduction Must preserve the genetic complement characteristic of the species
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Biology notes Exam 3 - Growth and repair: How do cells...

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