Bio 1201 test 2

Bio 1201 test 2 - T EST 2-PASSIVE TRANSPORT movement down a concentration gradient may employ a carrier molecule-ACTIVE TRANSPORT movement up a

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TEST 2 -PASSIVE TRANSPORT- movement down a concentration gradient. - may employ a carrier molecule. -ACTIVE TRANSPORT- movement up a concentration gradient -requires energy. -employs a carrier molecule -DIFFUSION- movement down a concentration gradient. - higher molecules to lower molecules. -Passive transport is simple diffusion. -OSMOSIS- diffusion of water. -** higher H2O potential energy(less solutes) to lower H2O energy (more solutes). -PROBLEMS CONFRONTING ORGANISMS -what if concentration of solutes differ between intercellular compartments and environment? -Example: fresh water and salt water -HYPERTONIC- - lower water potential (more solutes) - hypertonic solutions will tend to GAIN water -HYPOTONIC- -higher water potential (less solutes) - hypotonic solutions tend to LOSE water -ISOTONIC- -equal water potential - equivalent number of solutes - no net movement of water -plant cells are turgid. -supported by cell wall -**When concentrations are equal there is no movement of molecules. TRUE/FALSE=== FALSE -MARINE INVERTEBRATES -isotonic with seawater -body filled with amino acids to match the tonicity of sea water.
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-MARINE ELASMOBRANCH FISHES (SHARKS AND RAYS) - isotonic with seawater -accumulate solutes in blood and tissue - accumulate up to ½ molar urea in tissue -FRESHWATER BONY FISH (TELEOST FISH) - hypertonic to freshwater(gain water) - fish are more concentrated than water -MARINE BONY FISH ( TELEOST FISH) - hypotonic to sea water - lose water -** isotonic marine invertebrates don’t gain or lose water. -** Freshwater teleost fish gain water. -** Marine teleost fish lose water. -**What type of molecules pass through a membrane (phospholipids membrane)?? - small and NONpolar - polar or charged molecules will be repelled!!! - Metabolism is biological chemical reactions. -HOW DO CELLS ORGANIZE AND CONTROL THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT SUPPORT LIFE?? -METABOLIC TRANSFORMATION - chemical reaction - occurs in small steps - controlled processes - each step is controlled by a protein catalyst -enzyme -BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS - regulated by protein catalyst (enzymes) - synthesis of energy carrier molecules to store energy, transport from place to place and regulate flow. - couple reactions together so that unfavorable reactions can occur at the expense of reactions that release energy. -ENZYME - protein catalyst - accelerate reactions - not used up itself
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- specific reactions requires specific enzyme - enzymes lower the activation barrier - enzymes speed up reaction 10^8 to 10^20 times faster - do not reverse an energetically unfavorable reaction. -THERMODYNAMICS - study of the energy relationship - energy is the capacity to do work - higher potential energy is less stable - potential energy has greater capacity to do work - ENERGY - potential and kinetic - THERMODYNAMICS HAS 2 LAWS 1 ST LAW- within any closed system, the total amount of energy remains constant. 2 nd LAW- all spontaneous processes results in an increase in randomness and disorder in the universe. - a characteristic of life is organization.
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This note was uploaded on 08/22/2010 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Bio 1201 test 2 - T EST 2-PASSIVE TRANSPORT movement down a concentration gradient may employ a carrier molecule-ACTIVE TRANSPORT movement up a

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