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Unformatted text preview: Biology Chapter 1: Vocabulary Evolution- the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. Biology- the scientific study of life Emergent properties- New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases Systems biology- to construct models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems Eukaryotic cell- is subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles Prokaryotic cell- the DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane bounded nucleus DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)- a double stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar; capable of being replicated and determined the inherited structure of a cells proteins Genes- the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring Genome- the entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherits Negative feedback- accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process Positive feedback- an end product speeds up its production Bacteria- the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes that are divided among multiple kingdoms Domain- a taxonomic category above the kingdom level . The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. An independently folding part of a protein Inquiry- a search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions Discovery Science- describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data Data- recorded observations Inductive reasoning- discovery science that can lead to important conclusions based on a type of logic Hypothesis- a tentative answer to a well-framed question Deductive reasoning- the logic flows in the opposite direction Controlled experiment- and experiment that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group Theory- an explanation that is broad in scope, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence Models- a representation of a theory or process Technology- generally applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose CHAPTER 2 Matter- anything that takes up space and has mass Elements- a substance cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions Compound- a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio Trace Elements- those elements required by an organism in only minute quantities Neutrons- a subatomic particle having no electrical charge found in the nucleus of an atom...
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